Brief Report  |   June 2015
Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration (VMI): An Effective Outcome Measure for Handwriting Interventions for Kindergarten, First-Grade, and Second-Grade Students?
Author Affiliations
  • Beth Pfeiffer, PhD, OTR/L, BCP, is Associate Professor, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA; bpfeiffe@temple.edu
  • Beverly Moskowitz, DOT, MS, OTR/L, is President and Chief Executive Officer, Real OT Solutions, Villanova, PA
  • Andrew Paoletti, BSc, is Research Assistant, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA
  • Eugene Brusilovskiy, MUSA, is Statistician and Director, Laboratory on GIS Analytics in Rehabilitation Research, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA
  • Sheryl Eckberg Zylstra, MS, OTR/L, is Occupational Therapist, Chehalis/Centralia Student Support Cooperative, Chehalis, WA
  • Tammy Murray, DOT, MEd, OTR/L, is Adjunct Assistant Professor, Assumption College, Worcester, MA
Article Information
Pediatric Evaluation and Intervention / School-Based Practice / Departments / Brief Report
Brief Report   |   June 2015
Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration (VMI): An Effective Outcome Measure for Handwriting Interventions for Kindergarten, First-Grade, and Second-Grade Students?
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, June 2015, Vol. 69, 6904350010p1-6904350010p7. doi:10.5014/ajot.2015.015826
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, June 2015, Vol. 69, 6904350010p1-6904350010p7. doi:10.5014/ajot.2015.015826
Abstract

We determined whether a widely used assessment of visual–motor skills, the Beery–Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration (VMI), is appropriate for use as an outcome measure for handwriting interventions. A two-group pretest–posttest design was used with 207 kindergarten, first-grade, and second-grade students. Two well-established handwriting measures and the VMI were administered pre- and postintervention. The intervention group participated in the Size Matters Handwriting Program for 40 sessions, and the control group received standard instruction. Paired and independent-samples t tests were used to analyze group differences. The intervention group demonstrated significant improvements on the handwriting measures, with change scores having mostly large effect sizes. We found no significant difference in change scores on the VMI, t(202) = 1.19, p = .23. Results of this study suggest that the VMI may not detect changes in handwriting related to occupational therapy intervention.