Research Article  |   September 2011
Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Motor Performance at 4 Months
Author Affiliations
  • Rosemarie Bigsby, ScD, OTR/L, FAOTA, is Clinical Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Clinical Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and The Brown Center for the Study of Children At Risk, Women and Infants’ Hospital, 101 Dudley Street, Providence, RI 02748; Rosemarie_Bigsby@brown.edu
  • Linda L. LaGasse, PhD, is Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and The Brown Center for the Study of Children At Risk, Providence, RI
  • Barry Lester, PhD, is Professor of Pediatrics and Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and The Brown Center for the Study of Children At Risk, Providence, RI
  • Seetha Shankaran, MD, is Professor of Pediatrics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI
  • Henrietta Bada, MD, is Professor of Pediatrics, University of Kentucky Medical School, Lexington
  • Charles Bauer, MD, is Professor of Pediatrics, University of Miami Medical School, Miami, FL
  • Jing Liu, PhD, is Senior Study Director, Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD
Article Information
Pediatric Evaluation and Intervention / Children and Youth
Research Article   |   September 2011
Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Motor Performance at 4 Months
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, September/October 2011, Vol. 65, e60-e68. doi:10.5014/ajot.2011.001263
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, September/October 2011, Vol. 65, e60-e68. doi:10.5014/ajot.2011.001263
Abstract

OBJECTIVE. The relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and quality of movement was studied at 4 mo using the Posture and Fine Motor Assessment of Infants (PFMAI–I).

METHOD. Posture and fine motor scores of 4-month-old infants exposed to cocaine in utero (n = 370) were compared with an unexposed group (n = 533) within the context of gestational age, medical and demographic characteristics, and level of prenatal substance exposure using the PFMAI–I.

RESULTS. Infants prenatally exposed to cocaine had significantly lower posture scores than infants in the unexposed group. There was no main effect of cocaine exposure on fine motor scores; however, there were independent effects of gestational age at birth on both posture and fine motor scores at 4-mo corrected age.

CONCLUSION. These findings demonstrate independent contributions of prenatal cocaine exposure and prematurity to risk of motor delay and support the validity of the PFMAI–I as a measure of motor competence in early infancy.