Research Article  |   January 2013
Assessing Handwriting Intervention Effectiveness in Elementary School Students: A Two-Group Controlled Study
Author Affiliations
  • Tsu-Hsin Howe, PhD, OTR, is Assistant Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, New York University, 35 West Fourth Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10012; tsuhsin.howe@nyu.edu
  • Karen Laurie Roston, DPS, OT, is Occupational Therapist, New York City Board of Education, New York
  • Ching-Fan Sheu, PhD, is Professor, Institute of Education, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
  • Jim Hinojosa, PhD, OT, BCP, FAOTA, is Professor, Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, New York University, New York
Article Information
Pediatric Evaluation and Intervention / School-Based Practice / Children and Youth
Research Article   |   January 2013
Assessing Handwriting Intervention Effectiveness in Elementary School Students: A Two-Group Controlled Study
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, January/February 2013, Vol. 67, 19-26. doi:10.5014/ajot.2013.005470
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, January/February 2013, Vol. 67, 19-26. doi:10.5014/ajot.2013.005470
Abstract

This study examined the effectiveness of two approaches used in elementary schools to improve children’s handwriting. Participants were 72 New York City public school students from the first and second grades. A nonequivalent pretest–posttest group design was used in which students engaged in handwriting activities using two approaches: intensive handwriting practice and visual–perceptual–motor activities. Handwriting speed, legibility, and visual–motor skills were examined after a 12-wk Handwriting Club using multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed that students in the intensive handwriting practice group demonstrated significant improvements in handwriting legibility compared with students in the visual–perceptual–motor activity group. No significant effects in handwriting speed and visual–motor skills were found between the students in intensive handwriting practice group and the students in visual–perceptual–motor activities group. The Handwriting Club model is a natural intervention that fits easily into existing school curriculums and can be an effective short-term intervention (response to intervention Tier II).