Zoe Mailloux, Shelley Mulligan, Susanne Smith Roley, Erna Blanche, Sharon Cermak, Gina Geppert Coleman, Stefanie Bodison, Christianne Joy Lane; Verification and Clarification of Patterns of Sensory Integrative Dysfunction. Am J Occup Ther 2011;65(2):143-151. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2011.000752.
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© 2017 American Occupational Therapy Association
Building on established relationships between the constructs of sensory integration in typical and special needs populations, in this retrospective study we examined patterns of sensory integrative dysfunction in 273 children ages 4–9 who had received occupational therapy evaluations in two private practice settings. Test results on the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests, portions of the Sensory Processing Measure representing tactile overresponsiveness, and parent report of attention and activity level were included in the analyses. Exploratory factor analysis identified patterns similar to those found in early studies by Ayres (1965, 1966a, 1966b, 1969, 1972b, 1977, & 1989), namely Visuodyspraxia and Somatodyspraxia, Vestibular and Proprioceptive Bilateral Integration and Sequencing, Tactile and Visual Discrimination, and Tactile Defensiveness and Attention. Findings reinforce associations between constructs of sensory integration and assist with understanding sensory integration disorders that may affect childhood occupation. Limitations include the potential for subjective interpretation in factor analysis and inability to adjust measures available in charts in a retrospective research.
Tactile and motor planning deficits, termed somatodyspraxia in the later studies (Ayres, 1965, 1966a, 1966b, 1969, 1971, 1972b, 1977, 1989);
Visual perception and visual praxis deficits, termed visuodyspraxia in the later studies (Ayres, 1963, 1965, 1966a, 1966b, 1969, 1972b, 1977, 1989);
Vestibular, postural, bilateral integration, and sequencing deficits, given various names as knowledge of these functions evolved and new measures were added (Ayres, 1965, 1966b, 1969, 1971, 1972b, 1977, 1989); and
Tactile defensiveness with hyperactivity and distractibility, also known as sensory overresponsiveness (Ayres, 1964, 1965, 1966b, 1969, 1972b).
Visual perception and visual praxis would be associated, reflecting a pattern of visuopraxis.
Tactile perception and praxis would be associated, reflecting a pattern of somatopraxis.
Vestibular functions and bilateral motor coordination and sequencing would be associated, reflecting a pattern of vestibular bilateral integration and sequencing.
Tactile perception tests would be associated with each other or with other sensory perception tests.
Sensory overresponsiveness and attention would be associated.
SPM 30/ESP T4 (overresponsive): Does your child pull away from being touched lightly?
SPM 32/ESP T7 (overresponsive): Does your child react negatively to the feel of new clothes?
SPM 33/ESP T16 (overresponsive): Does your child prefer to touch rather than be touched?
SPM 34/ESP T27 (overresponsive): Does it bother your child to have his/her finger or toe nails cut?
SPM 35/ESP T36 (overresponsive): Does it bother your child to have his/her face touched?
SPM 36/ESP T12 (overresponsive): Does your child avoid getting his/her hands in finger paint, paste, sand, clay, mud, glue, or other messy things?
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