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Other  |   January 2010
Blueprint for Entry-Level Education
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Advocacy / Health and Wellness / Rehabilitation, Participation, and Disability / The Association
Other   |   January 2010
Blueprint for Entry-Level Education
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, January/February 2010, Vol. 64, 186-203. doi:10.5014/ajot.64.1.186
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, January/February 2010, Vol. 64, 186-203. doi:10.5014/ajot.64.1.186
The purpose of the Blueprint for Entry-Level Education is to identify the content knowledge that occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants should receive in their educational programs. This knowledge is needed to prepare graduates to address not only the needs of people with chronic conditions and disabilities but also of those who are at risk for these conditions, as well as those who want to stay healthy and active. This approach is necessary, as the health system frequently changes, and in addition to practicing with individuals, occupational therapy practitioners will be working with organizations and populations to maximize the abilities of all persons to fully participate in society.
Educational programs can use the Blueprint as a curriculum content guide, which will continuously and dynamically ensure that their educational offerings can prepare future practitioners, educators, scientists, and entrepreneurs for the 21st century of the occupational therapy profession.
The conceptual framework used to frame the Blueprint was occupational performance. This was chosen because all of the developing models of occupational therapy and the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process (American Occupational Therapy Association [AOTA], 2008) are built on the concepts of occupation, personal factors (intrinsic), and environmental factors (extrinsic). The Blueprint also identifies the professional and interpersonal concepts that the authors felt were integral to occupational therapy practice. The professional and interpersonal concepts were based on the findings reported in the Pew Health Professions Commission’s (1995) Critical Challenges: Revitalizing the Health Professions for the 21st Century and Recreating Health Professional Practice for a New Century: The Fourth Report of the Pew Health Professions Commission (1998) . The concepts identified in the Blueprint describe the knowledge that occupational therapy practitioners uniquely bring to society through interventions and professional contributions.
It is not the intent of the Blueprint to provide details about how or what to teach different levels of occupational therapy personnel. However, the Blueprint can be used as a template by all occupational therapy and occupational therapy assistant educators (and those planning continuing education initiatives), because its content can be used to prepare practitioners to address the future needs of society. The key concepts described in the Blueprint offer guidance to educators in designing curriculum content that will prepare students for a changing society in which occupational therapy’s unique contributions are so critical to foster the health and participation of those they serve.
The Blueprint has four sections: (1) person factors, (2) environmental factors, (3) occupation factors, and (4) professional factors. In addition to identifying major topics, the Blueprint describes key concepts, identifies the science that generates the concepts (which can prompt discussion about prerequisites), and discusses the skills that should be developed to be able to implement the concepts and the areas of practice that require this knowledge. Because the Blueprint uses terms that exceed those in the current Occupational Therapy Practice Framework, a glossary is provided.
There was no intent to design the Blueprint to address specialization. Occupational therapists can practice in hundreds of areas of specialization; therefore, the Blueprint can identify key knowledge that occupational therapists must understand to address the occupational performance needs of the people they will serve. The Blueprint Committee believes that the Blueprint concepts provide the base for the knowledge that will allow students to develop a specialty when they choose the focus of their master’s or doctoral projects.
The Blueprint was prepared by a committee appointed by President Penny Moyers Cleveland and had feedback from more than 1,200 clinicians and educators nationwide. We thank them for their input.
  • Carolyn Baum, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA, Washington University in St. Louis, MO, Chair
  • Cindy Barrows, MS, OTR/L, CPRP, Vinfen Corporation, MA
  • Julie D. Bass-Haugen, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA, Saint Catherine University, MN
  • Debra Chasanoff, MEd, OTR/L, Manatee Community College, FL
  • Lucinda Dale, EdD, OTR, CHT, University of Indianapolis, IN
  • Gavin Jenkins, MA, OTR/L, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL
  • Paula Kramer, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, PA
  • Mary C. Moore, PhD, University of Indianapolis, IN
  • Janet Raisor, OTR, St. Mary’s Health System, IN
  • Becky Wade, OTA/L, Sundance Rehabilitation, OK
  • Neil Harvison, PhD, OTR/L, Staff Liaison, American Occupational Therapy Association, MD
SECTION I: PERSON-CENTERED FACTORS
SECTION I: PERSON-CENTERED FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Cognition support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingAttentionNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
MemoryCognitive scienceIntervention planningProductive aging
Executive functionOccupational scienceCognitive-behavioral strategiesRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Social awareness (theory of mind)Rehabilitation science
PsychologyEnvironmental strategiesWork and industry
LearningEducationEmploying learning strategiesMental illness
CommunicationPsychiatryHealth and wellness
Awareness/insightCommunicationActivity analysis
Self-management strategies
Use of virtual tools
Psychological support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingMotivationNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
Self-efficacyOccupational scienceIntervention planningProductive aging
AffectPsychologyCoachingRehabilitation, disability, and participation
MoodSociologyGroup skills
IdentityAnthropologyActivity analysisWork and industry
Self-conceptPathophysiologySelf-management strategiesMental illness
Self-esteemTherapeutic use of selfUse of virtual toolsHealth and wellness
Emotional regulationTherapeutic use of self
Coping
Well-being
Life balance
Physiological support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingPlasticityNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
StrengthAnatomyIntervention planningProductive aging
Muscle endurancePhysiologyActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Muscle toneKinesiologyEnvironmental strategies
Involuntary movement reactionsRehabilitation scienceAssistive technologyWork and industry
Exercise scienceSelf-management strategiesMental illness
Gait patternsPathophysiologyUse of virtual toolsHealth and wellness
Cardiac enduranceNutritional science
FitnessHolistic health
Range of motion
Sleep
General health
Nutritional status
Stress
Protective and repair functions of skin
Sensory/perceptual support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingSensory processingAnatomyAssessmentChildren and youth
SomatosensoryNeuroscienceIntervention planningProductive aging
VisionPhysiologyActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
AuditionOccupational scienceSensory stimulation/enhancement
OlfactoryWork and industry
GustatoryEnvironmental strategiesMental illness
ProprioceptiveAssistive technologyHealth and wellness
TactileSelf-management strategies
VestibularUse of virtual tools
Motor support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingSpontaneous movementNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
ReflexesRehabilitation scienceIntervention planningProductive aging
Postural controlExercise scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Fine motor controlAnatomy and physiologyMotor learning strategies
Gross motor controlAssistive technologyWork and industry
Motor planningEnvironmental strategiesMental illness
Self-management strategiesHealth and wellness
Use of virtual tools
Spirituality support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingMeaningAnthropologyAssessmentChildren and youth
Personal well-beingPhilosophyIntervention planningProductive aging
Mind-body connectionPsychologyActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Life storiesTheologyCoaching
PsychoneuroimmunologyGroup skillsWork and industry
SemioticsInterviewing skillsHealth promotion
Use of virtual tools
SECTION I: PERSON-CENTERED FACTORS
SECTION I: PERSON-CENTERED FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Cognition support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingAttentionNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
MemoryCognitive scienceIntervention planningProductive aging
Executive functionOccupational scienceCognitive-behavioral strategiesRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Social awareness (theory of mind)Rehabilitation science
PsychologyEnvironmental strategiesWork and industry
LearningEducationEmploying learning strategiesMental illness
CommunicationPsychiatryHealth and wellness
Awareness/insightCommunicationActivity analysis
Self-management strategies
Use of virtual tools
Psychological support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingMotivationNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
Self-efficacyOccupational scienceIntervention planningProductive aging
AffectPsychologyCoachingRehabilitation, disability, and participation
MoodSociologyGroup skills
IdentityAnthropologyActivity analysisWork and industry
Self-conceptPathophysiologySelf-management strategiesMental illness
Self-esteemTherapeutic use of selfUse of virtual toolsHealth and wellness
Emotional regulationTherapeutic use of self
Coping
Well-being
Life balance
Physiological support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingPlasticityNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
StrengthAnatomyIntervention planningProductive aging
Muscle endurancePhysiologyActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Muscle toneKinesiologyEnvironmental strategies
Involuntary movement reactionsRehabilitation scienceAssistive technologyWork and industry
Exercise scienceSelf-management strategiesMental illness
Gait patternsPathophysiologyUse of virtual toolsHealth and wellness
Cardiac enduranceNutritional science
FitnessHolistic health
Range of motion
Sleep
General health
Nutritional status
Stress
Protective and repair functions of skin
Sensory/perceptual support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingSensory processingAnatomyAssessmentChildren and youth
SomatosensoryNeuroscienceIntervention planningProductive aging
VisionPhysiologyActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
AuditionOccupational scienceSensory stimulation/enhancement
OlfactoryWork and industry
GustatoryEnvironmental strategiesMental illness
ProprioceptiveAssistive technologyHealth and wellness
TactileSelf-management strategies
VestibularUse of virtual tools
Motor support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingSpontaneous movementNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
ReflexesRehabilitation scienceIntervention planningProductive aging
Postural controlExercise scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Fine motor controlAnatomy and physiologyMotor learning strategies
Gross motor controlAssistive technologyWork and industry
Motor planningEnvironmental strategiesMental illness
Self-management strategiesHealth and wellness
Use of virtual tools
Spirituality support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingMeaningAnthropologyAssessmentChildren and youth
Personal well-beingPhilosophyIntervention planningProductive aging
Mind-body connectionPsychologyActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Life storiesTheologyCoaching
PsychoneuroimmunologyGroup skillsWork and industry
SemioticsInterviewing skillsHealth promotion
Use of virtual tools
×
SECTION II: ENVIRONMENT-CENTERED FACTORS
SECTION II: ENVIRONMENT-CENTERED FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Social environment support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingAdvocacyEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
Community supportAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
Social capitalSocial sciencesActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Economic capitalArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
Political infrastructureOccupational scienceWork and industry
Family and support groupsPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Policy and access (local, state, national, international)NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
EngineeringCommunity collaboration
Translational scienceLobbying/advocacy/policy development
Social inequality/health disparityHuman development
Women’s studiesTherapeutic use of self
Human rightsRace/ethnicity studiesIdentification of stakeholders; stakeholders’ views and positions
FundingEconomics
Occupational deprivation/justice
Scanning/awareness of social change
Use of virtual tools
Cultural environment support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingIndividual vs. population vs. institution:Environmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
AnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
ValuesSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
CustomsArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
BeliefsOccupational scienceWork and industry
PolicyPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Power/decision-making-NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
Organizational practiceEngineeringCommunity collaboration
PolicyTranslational scienceLobbying/advocacy/policy development
EconomicHuman development
EthicsTherapeutic use of self
PhilosophyUse of virtual tools
Natural environment support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingEcological issuesEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
PhysicalAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
Community planning and developmentSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
ArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
EngineeringOccupational scienceWork and industry
AccessPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Universal designNeuroscienceHealth and wellness
EngineeringCommunity collaboration
Translational scienceLobbying/advocacy/policy development
Human geography
AgricultureIdentification of stakeholders, stakeholders’ views and positions
Natural resources
Scanning/awareness of social change
Use of virtual tools
Design and technology support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingIndividualEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
Assistive technologyAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
– ErgonomicsSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
– Accessible designArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
– ParticipationOccupational scienceWork and industry
Community planningPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Universal designNeuroscienceHealth and wellness
UrbanizationEngineeringCommunity collaboration
Sustainable developmentAnthropometricsLobbying/advocacy/policy development
Community developmentTranslational science
Traffic planningHuman geographyDesign of technology
– TransportationDesign theoryComputer interaction
Participation and accessComputer scienceUse of virtual tools
Information technology
Environmental support (assistive technology) support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingVirtualEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
PhysicalAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
Social scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
ArchitectureWritten and oral communication
Occupational scienceWork and industry
Political scienceUse of virtual toolsMental illness
NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
Rehabilitation engineering
Design theory
Translational science
Human geography
Environment for occupational performance support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingTherapeutic impact of environmentEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
AnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
ParticipationSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Person-environment fitArchitecturePerson environment fit/interaction
Occupational scienceWork and industry
Political scienceWritten and oral communicationMental illness
NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
Rehabilitation engineeringTherapeutic use of self
Translational scienceUse of virtual tools
Human development
SECTION II: ENVIRONMENT-CENTERED FACTORS
SECTION II: ENVIRONMENT-CENTERED FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Social environment support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingAdvocacyEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
Community supportAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
Social capitalSocial sciencesActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Economic capitalArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
Political infrastructureOccupational scienceWork and industry
Family and support groupsPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Policy and access (local, state, national, international)NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
EngineeringCommunity collaboration
Translational scienceLobbying/advocacy/policy development
Social inequality/health disparityHuman development
Women’s studiesTherapeutic use of self
Human rightsRace/ethnicity studiesIdentification of stakeholders; stakeholders’ views and positions
FundingEconomics
Occupational deprivation/justice
Scanning/awareness of social change
Use of virtual tools
Cultural environment support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingIndividual vs. population vs. institution:Environmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
AnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
ValuesSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
CustomsArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
BeliefsOccupational scienceWork and industry
PolicyPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Power/decision-making-NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
Organizational practiceEngineeringCommunity collaboration
PolicyTranslational scienceLobbying/advocacy/policy development
EconomicHuman development
EthicsTherapeutic use of self
PhilosophyUse of virtual tools
Natural environment support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingEcological issuesEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
PhysicalAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
Community planning and developmentSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
ArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
EngineeringOccupational scienceWork and industry
AccessPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Universal designNeuroscienceHealth and wellness
EngineeringCommunity collaboration
Translational scienceLobbying/advocacy/policy development
Human geography
AgricultureIdentification of stakeholders, stakeholders’ views and positions
Natural resources
Scanning/awareness of social change
Use of virtual tools
Design and technology support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingIndividualEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
Assistive technologyAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
– ErgonomicsSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
– Accessible designArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
– ParticipationOccupational scienceWork and industry
Community planningPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Universal designNeuroscienceHealth and wellness
UrbanizationEngineeringCommunity collaboration
Sustainable developmentAnthropometricsLobbying/advocacy/policy development
Community developmentTranslational science
Traffic planningHuman geographyDesign of technology
– TransportationDesign theoryComputer interaction
Participation and accessComputer scienceUse of virtual tools
Information technology
Environmental support (assistive technology) support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingVirtualEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
PhysicalAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
Social scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
ArchitectureWritten and oral communication
Occupational scienceWork and industry
Political scienceUse of virtual toolsMental illness
NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
Rehabilitation engineering
Design theory
Translational science
Human geography
Environment for occupational performance support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingTherapeutic impact of environmentEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
AnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
ParticipationSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Person-environment fitArchitecturePerson environment fit/interaction
Occupational scienceWork and industry
Political scienceWritten and oral communicationMental illness
NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
Rehabilitation engineeringTherapeutic use of self
Translational scienceUse of virtual tools
Human development
×
SECTION III: OCCUPATION-CENTERED FACTORS
SECTION III: OCCUPATION-CENTERED FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Doing—Person-Level ApproachOccupationOccupational scienceApply occupation principles to help individuals and families engage in activities that are central to their doingChildren and youth
Occupational performancePsychologyProductive aging
ActivitySociologyRehabilitation, disability, and participation
HabitDisability studies
InterestAnthropologyWork and industry
MotivationEducationImplement successful applications to address the person and environmental factors that support the threshold concepts that are central to doingMental illness
RoleCultural studiesHealth and wellness
RoutineEpidemiology
VolitionEconomics
FlowPolitical science
Learning styleComputer science
RitualHistoryImplement self-management approaches to help people manage health and performance problems
Engineering
Natural sciences
Rehabilitation science
PhilosophyEmploy therapeutic strategies to enable doing by individuals, including therapeutic use of self, therapeutic rapport, empowerment, enablement principles, learning strategies, cultural sensitivity, linguistic competency
Doing—Organization and population approachesOccupationEpidemologyApply occupation principles to help organizations and populations engage in activities that are central to their doingChildren and youth
Occupational performanceCognitive–behavioral sciences learningProductive aging
ActivityRehabilitation, disability, and participation
HabitHealth service research
InterestOrganizational behaviorWork and industry
MotivationPublic healthDescribe the behaviors of organizations and populationsMental illness
RoleHealth behaviorHealth and wellness
RoutineHuman factors
VolitionEducationIdentify incidence and prevalence
FlowSpecial education
Learning styleSociologyUse context as a tool
RitualTeach strategies to public
Classifications of occupational activityInternational Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO, 2001)Occupational scienceIdentify the occupational activities of clients organizations and populationsChildren and youth
Rehabilitation scienceProductive aging
Fine artsRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Learning/applying knowledgeEducationChoose assessments for specific occupational actvities identified by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Occupational Therapy Practice Framework classifications
General tasks/demandsInternational Classification of Functioning, Disability and HealthWork and industry
CommunicationMental illness
MobilityHealth and wellness
Self-careOccupational Therapy Practice Framework
Domestic life
Interpersonal interactions and relationshipsWork/vocational studies
Special education
Major life areasRecreational studies
Community, civic, and social lifePsychology/development
SociologyHelp clients achieve goals they perceive as necessary for specific occupational activities
Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (AOTA, 2008)Political science
Communication
Neuroscience
ADLs
IADLs
Rest and sleep
Work
Play
Leisure
Social participation
Related concepts
Tasks
Core occupational therapy outcomesAdaptation/copingOccupational scienceIdentify tools to record progress made in occupational therapy interventionsChildren and youth
Competence/mastery Independence/autonomyPsychologyProductive aging
SociologyRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Occupational performance/functionDisability studies
Rehabilitation scienceAdminister measuresWork and industry
EducationRecord dataMental illness
Report data for quality assurance and other purposesHealth and wellness
Table Footer NoteNote. ADLs = activities of daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living.
Note. ADLs = activities of daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living.×
SECTION III: OCCUPATION-CENTERED FACTORS
SECTION III: OCCUPATION-CENTERED FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Doing—Person-Level ApproachOccupationOccupational scienceApply occupation principles to help individuals and families engage in activities that are central to their doingChildren and youth
Occupational performancePsychologyProductive aging
ActivitySociologyRehabilitation, disability, and participation
HabitDisability studies
InterestAnthropologyWork and industry
MotivationEducationImplement successful applications to address the person and environmental factors that support the threshold concepts that are central to doingMental illness
RoleCultural studiesHealth and wellness
RoutineEpidemiology
VolitionEconomics
FlowPolitical science
Learning styleComputer science
RitualHistoryImplement self-management approaches to help people manage health and performance problems
Engineering
Natural sciences
Rehabilitation science
PhilosophyEmploy therapeutic strategies to enable doing by individuals, including therapeutic use of self, therapeutic rapport, empowerment, enablement principles, learning strategies, cultural sensitivity, linguistic competency
Doing—Organization and population approachesOccupationEpidemologyApply occupation principles to help organizations and populations engage in activities that are central to their doingChildren and youth
Occupational performanceCognitive–behavioral sciences learningProductive aging
ActivityRehabilitation, disability, and participation
HabitHealth service research
InterestOrganizational behaviorWork and industry
MotivationPublic healthDescribe the behaviors of organizations and populationsMental illness
RoleHealth behaviorHealth and wellness
RoutineHuman factors
VolitionEducationIdentify incidence and prevalence
FlowSpecial education
Learning styleSociologyUse context as a tool
RitualTeach strategies to public
Classifications of occupational activityInternational Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO, 2001)Occupational scienceIdentify the occupational activities of clients organizations and populationsChildren and youth
Rehabilitation scienceProductive aging
Fine artsRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Learning/applying knowledgeEducationChoose assessments for specific occupational actvities identified by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Occupational Therapy Practice Framework classifications
General tasks/demandsInternational Classification of Functioning, Disability and HealthWork and industry
CommunicationMental illness
MobilityHealth and wellness
Self-careOccupational Therapy Practice Framework
Domestic life
Interpersonal interactions and relationshipsWork/vocational studies
Special education
Major life areasRecreational studies
Community, civic, and social lifePsychology/development
SociologyHelp clients achieve goals they perceive as necessary for specific occupational activities
Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (AOTA, 2008)Political science
Communication
Neuroscience
ADLs
IADLs
Rest and sleep
Work
Play
Leisure
Social participation
Related concepts
Tasks
Core occupational therapy outcomesAdaptation/copingOccupational scienceIdentify tools to record progress made in occupational therapy interventionsChildren and youth
Competence/mastery Independence/autonomyPsychologyProductive aging
SociologyRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Occupational performance/functionDisability studies
Rehabilitation scienceAdminister measuresWork and industry
EducationRecord dataMental illness
Report data for quality assurance and other purposesHealth and wellness
Table Footer NoteNote. ADLs = activities of daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living.
Note. ADLs = activities of daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living.×
×
SECTION IV: PROFESSIONAL and INTERPERSONAL FACTORS
SECTION IV: PROFESSIONAL and INTERPERSONAL FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Ethics and advocacySocial responsibility and serviceMoral theory and ethicsCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Productive aging
Public serviceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Ethical behaviorFlexibility in adapting to practice settings
Equity in service accessWork and industry
Political activismQualityMental illness
Health/public policyUnderstanding of workplaceHealth and wellness
Research skills
CommunicationElectronic communication and information resourcesInformation technologies Management sciences Social sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Productive aging
Rehabilitation, disability, and participation
Social networksApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Conflict resolutionWork and industry
TeamworkMental illness
Public informationHealth and wellness
Communicating with lay audiencesUses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines to unique and novel situations Interpersonal communication
Working with media
Writing for and speaking with lay public
CultureDiversitySocial sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Cultural sensitivityProductive aging
Health beliefs and practicesRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Non-traditional, alterntive, and complementary health practiceApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Work and industry
Mental illness
Health and wellness
Uses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines to unique and novel situations
Professional developmentCurrency in practiceHealth management sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Lifelong professional developmentProductive aging
Occupational therapy practiceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
MentorApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Social systemsInformation technologiesWork and industry
Leadership developmentMental illness
Health and wellness
Uses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines to unique and novel situations
Professional advocacy
Evidence-based practiceAccountability for health care quality and out-comesHealth management sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Productive aging
Occupational therapy practiceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Health care utilizationApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Outcome measurementsInformation technologiesWork and industry
Health services researchMental illness
Health and wellness
Uses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines Evidence-based outcomes and research
Business fundamentalsIdentifying business opportunitiesHealth mangement sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Information technologiesProductive aging
Analyzing a business conceptPolitical scienceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Legal, policy, and regulatory issuesEmerging areas of practice
Completing feasibility studiesEntrepreneurial skillsWork and industry
Communication scienceUndertakes self- and business assessment to identify opportunities and possesses cognitive astuteness, technical expertise, and emotional intelligence to create successMental illness
Creating vision statementsHealth and wellness
Creating mission statements
Understanding the legal frameworks/structures within which businesses function
Development of business plans
Uses analytical skills to assess business concepts and create clear vision and implementation strategies
Development of marketing plans
Financial management
Start-up strategies
Lobbying and advocacyFlexibility and commitment
Policy and legal framework analysis
Advocacy
SECTION IV: PROFESSIONAL and INTERPERSONAL FACTORS
SECTION IV: PROFESSIONAL and INTERPERSONAL FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Ethics and advocacySocial responsibility and serviceMoral theory and ethicsCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Productive aging
Public serviceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Ethical behaviorFlexibility in adapting to practice settings
Equity in service accessWork and industry
Political activismQualityMental illness
Health/public policyUnderstanding of workplaceHealth and wellness
Research skills
CommunicationElectronic communication and information resourcesInformation technologies Management sciences Social sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Productive aging
Rehabilitation, disability, and participation
Social networksApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Conflict resolutionWork and industry
TeamworkMental illness
Public informationHealth and wellness
Communicating with lay audiencesUses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines to unique and novel situations Interpersonal communication
Working with media
Writing for and speaking with lay public
CultureDiversitySocial sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Cultural sensitivityProductive aging
Health beliefs and practicesRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Non-traditional, alterntive, and complementary health practiceApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Work and industry
Mental illness
Health and wellness
Uses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines to unique and novel situations
Professional developmentCurrency in practiceHealth management sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Lifelong professional developmentProductive aging
Occupational therapy practiceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
MentorApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Social systemsInformation technologiesWork and industry
Leadership developmentMental illness
Health and wellness
Uses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines to unique and novel situations
Professional advocacy
Evidence-based practiceAccountability for health care quality and out-comesHealth management sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Productive aging
Occupational therapy practiceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Health care utilizationApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Outcome measurementsInformation technologiesWork and industry
Health services researchMental illness
Health and wellness
Uses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines Evidence-based outcomes and research
Business fundamentalsIdentifying business opportunitiesHealth mangement sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Information technologiesProductive aging
Analyzing a business conceptPolitical scienceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Legal, policy, and regulatory issuesEmerging areas of practice
Completing feasibility studiesEntrepreneurial skillsWork and industry
Communication scienceUndertakes self- and business assessment to identify opportunities and possesses cognitive astuteness, technical expertise, and emotional intelligence to create successMental illness
Creating vision statementsHealth and wellness
Creating mission statements
Understanding the legal frameworks/structures within which businesses function
Development of business plans
Uses analytical skills to assess business concepts and create clear vision and implementation strategies
Development of marketing plans
Financial management
Start-up strategies
Lobbying and advocacyFlexibility and commitment
Policy and legal framework analysis
Advocacy
×
Glossary
Many of the following definitions were adapted from the glossary in the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process (AOTA, 2008).
A
Activities of daily living (ADLs)—Activities oriented toward taking care of one’s own body (adapted from Rogers & Holm, 1994, pp. 181–202). ADLs also are referred to as basic activities of daily living (BADLs) and personal activities of daily living (PADLs). These activities are “fundamental to living in a social world; they enable basic survival and well-being” (Christiansen & Hammecker, 2001, p. 156).
Activity (Activities)—A class of human actions that are goal directed.
Activity analysis—“addresses the typical demands of an activity; the range of skills involved in its performance, and the various cultural meanings that might be ascribed to it” (Crepeau, 2003, p. 192).
Activity demands—The aspects of an activity, which include the objects and their physical properties, space, social demands, sequencing or timing, required actions or skills, and required underlying body functions and body structures needed to carry out the activity.
Adaptation—The response approach the client makes encountering an occupational challenge. “This change is implemented when the individual’s customary response approaches are found inadequate for some degree of mastery over the challenge”(Schultz & Schkade, 1997, p. 474).
Advocacy—The “pursuit of influencing outcomes—including public policy and resource allocation decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions—that directly affect people’s lives” (Advocacy Institute, 2001, as cited in Goodman-Lavey & Dunbar, 2003, p. 422).
Analysis of occupational performance—Part of the evaluation process. Collecting information via assessment tools designed to observe, measure, and inquire about selected factors that support or hinder occupational performance.
Areas of occupations—Various kinds of life activities in which people engage, including the following categories: ADLs, IADLs, rest and sleep, education, work, play, leisure, and social participation.
Assessment—“Specific tools or instruments that are used during the evaluation process” (AOTA, 2005, p. 663).
B
Belief—Any cognitive content held as true by the client (Moyers & Dale, 2007).
Body functions—“The physiological functions of body systems (including psychological functions)” (WHO, 2001, p. 10).
Body structures—“Anatomical parts of the body such as organs, limbs, and their components [that support body function]” (WHO, 2001, p. 10).
C
Client—The entity that receives occupational therapy services. Clients may include (1) individuals and other persons relevant to the individual’s life, including family, caregivers, teachers, employers, and others who also may help or be served indirectly; (2) organizations such as business, industries, or agencies; and (3) populations within a community (Moyers & Dale, 2007).
Client-centered approach—An orientation that honors the desires and priorities of clients in designing and implementing interventions (adapted from Dunn, 2000, p. 4).
Client factors—Those factors residing within the client that may affect performance in areas of occupation. Client factors include values, beliefs, and spirituality; body functions; and body structures.
Clinical reasoning—“Complex, multi-faceted cognitive process used by practitioners to plan, direct, perform, and reflect on intervention” (Crepeau et al., 2003, p. 1027).
Communication and social skills—Actions or behaviors a person uses to communicate and interact with others in an interactive environment (Fisher, 2006).
Cognitive skills—Actions or behaviors a client uses to plan and manage the performance of an activity.
Communicating with lay audiences—Ability to translate technical/professional terminology into common language so that it can be understood by those who are not that profession.
Context—Refers to a variety of interrelated conditions within and surrounding the client that influence performance. Contexts include cultural, personal, temporal, and virtual.
Co-occupations—Activities that implicitly involve at least two people (Zemke & Clark, 1996).
Cultural (context)—“Customs, beliefs, activity patterns, behavior standards, and expectations accepted by the society of which the [client] is a member. Includes ethnicity and values as well as political aspects, such as laws that affect access to resources and affirm personal rights. Also includes opportunities for education, employment, and economic support” (AOTA, 1994, p. 1054).
Currency in practice—An understanding of updated practices in treating a particular problem; ability to use the latest evidence when practicing.
Creating mission statements—The process of devising a clear and succinct description of the enterprise’s purpose for existence. It should incorporate socially meaningful and measurable criteria.
Creating vision statements—The process of devising a vivid idealized description of a desired outcome for the future that will appeal to and energize others. The vision statement provides the framework for strategic planning.
D
Development of business plans—The process of putting together a plan for a new endeavor that looks at the product, the marketing plan, the competition, and the personnel in an objective and critical manner.
Development of marketing plans—The process of putting together a strategy to bring a specific product or service to the public, involving how to “sell” this product or concept to make others aware of it.
Domain—A sphere of activity, concern, or function (American Heritage Dictionary, 2006 ).
E
Education—Includes learning activities needed when participating in an environment.
Emotional regulation skills—Actions or behaviors a client uses to identify, manage, and express feelings while engaging in activities or interacting with others.
Engagement—The act of sharing activities.
Environment—The external physical and social environment that surrounds the client and in which the client’s daily life occupations occur.
Evaluation—“The process of obtaining and interpreting data necessary for intervention. This includes planning for and documenting the evaluation process and results” (AOTA, 2005, p. 663).
G
Goals—“The result or achievement toward which effort is directed; aim; end” (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1994 , p. 605).
H
Habits—“Automatic behavior that is integrated into more complex patterns that enable people to function on a day-to-day basis” (Neistadt & Crepeau, 1998, p. 869). Habits can be useful, dominating, or impoverished and either support or interfere with performance in areas of occupation.
Health—Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. It is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, as well as a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities (adapted from WHO, 1986).
Health promotion—“[T]he process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. To reach a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, an individual or group must be able to identify and realize aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment” (WHO, 1986). “[C]reating the conditions necessary for health at individual, structural, social, and environmental levels through an understanding of the determinants of health: peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, social justice, and equity” (Trentham & Cockburn, 2005, p. 441).
Health/public policy—The basic policy or set of policies forming the foundation of public laws; health policy refers to specific policies as they relate to health and health care.
Health care utilization—How one accesses and uses varying parts of the health care system.
Hope—The real or perceived belief that one can move toward a goal through selected pathways (Lopez et al., 2004).
I
Identity—“A composite definition of the self and includes an interpersonal aspect … an aspect of possibility or potential (who we might become), and a values aspect (that suggests importance and provides a stable basis for choices and decisions)…. Identity can be viewed as the superordinate view of ourselves that includes both self-esteem and self-concept but also importantly reflects and is influenced by the larger social world in which we find ourselves” (Christiansen, 1999, pp. 548–549).
Independence—“A self-directed state of being characterized by an individual’s ability to participate in necessary and preferred occupations in a satisfying manner irrespective of the amount or kind of external assistance desired or required.
  • Self-determination is essential to achieving and maintaining independence.

  • An individual’s independence is unrelated to whether he or she performs the activities related to an occupation himself or herself, performs the activities in an adapted or modified environment, makes use of various devices or alternative strategies, or oversees activity completion by others.

  • Independence is defined by the individual’s culture and values, support systems, and ability to direct his or her life; and

  • An individual’s independence should not be based on pre-established criteria, perception of outside observers, or how independence is accomplished” (AOTA, 2002, p. 660).

Individual vs. population vs. institution—(Values, customs, beliefs, policy, power/decision making) Refers to becoming aware of the different needs of perspectives, of one person, as opposed to a specific population, as opposed to the needs and concerns of an individual. Each have different values, needs beliefs, and concerns. Each also may have different degree of power and the ability to make decisions that will affect others.
Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)—Activities to support daily life within the home and community that often require more complex interactions than self-care used in ADLs.
Interdependence—The “reliance that people have on each other as a natural consequence of group living” (Christiansen & Townsend, 2004, p. 277). “Interdependence engenders a spirit of social inclusion, mutual aid, and a moral commitment and responsibility to recognize and support difference” (p. 146).
Interests—“What one finds enjoyable or satisfying to do” (Kielhofner, 2002, p. 25).
Intervention—The process and skilled actions taken by occupational therapy practitioners in collaboration with the client to facilitate engagement in occupation related to health and participation. The intervention process includes the plan, implementation, and review.
Intervention approaches—Specific strategies selected to direct the process of interventions that are based on the client’s desired outcome, evaluation date, and evidence.
L
Leisure—“A nonobligatory activity that is intrinsically motivated and engaged in during discretionary time, that is, time not committed to obligatory occupations such as work, self-care, or sleep” (Parham & Fazio, 1997, p. 250).
Life balance—The ability to have balance in one’s life, between work, play/leisure, sleeping, and self-care.
Life stories—An account of a series of event that make up a person’s life.
M
Motor and praxis skills—Actions or behaviors a client uses to move and physically interact with tasks, objects, contexts, and environments (adapted from Fisher, 2006). Includes planning, sequencing, and executing novel movements.
Motor planning—Ability to automatically perform an action without thinking through each movement.
O
Occupation—“Goal-directed pursuits that typically extend over time have meaning to the performance, and involve multiple tasks” (Christiansen et al., 2005, p. 548).
“Daily activities that reflect cultural values, provide structure to living, and meaning to individuals; these activities meet human needs for self-care, enjoyment, and participation in society” (Crepeau et al., 2003, p. 1031).
“Activities that people engage in throughout their daily lives to fulfill their time and give life meaning. Occupations involve mental abilities and skills and may or may not have an observable physical dimension” (Hinojosa & Kramer, 1997, p. 865).
“[A] activities of everyday life, named, organized, and given value and meaning by individuals and a culture. Occupation is everything people do to occupy themselves, including looking after themselves … enjoying life … and contributing to the social and economic fabric of their communities” (Law et al., 1997, p. 32).
“A dynamic relationship among an occupational form, a person with a unique developmental structure, subjective meanings and purpose, and the resulting occupational performance” (Nelson & Jepson-Thomas, 2003, p. 90).
“[C]hunks of daily activity that can be named in the lexicon of the culture” (Zemke & Clark, 1996, p. vii).
Occupation-based intervention—A type of occupational therapy intervention—a client-centered intervention in which the occupational therapy practitioner and client collaboratively select and design activities that have specific relevance or meaning to the client and support the client’s interests, need, health, and participation in daily life.
Occupational justice—“Justice related to opportunities and resources required for occupational participation sufficient to satisfy personal needs and full citizenship” (Christiansen & Townsend, 2004, p. 278). To experience meaning and enrichment in one’s occupations; to participate in a range of occupations for health and social inclusion; to make choices and share decision-making power in daily life; and to receive equal privileges for diverse participation in occupations (Townsend & Wilcock, 2004).
Occupational performance—The act of doing and accomplishing a selected activity or occupation that results from the dynamic transaction among the client, the context, and the activity. Improving or enabling skills and patterns in occupational performance leads to engagement in occupations or activities (adapted in part from Law et al., 1996, p. 16).
Occupational profile—A summary of the client’s occupational history, patterns of daily living, interests, values, and needs.
Occupational science—An interdisciplinary academic discipline in the social and behavioral sciences dedicated to the study of the form, the function, and the meaning of human occupations (Zemke & Clark, 1996).
Occupational therapy—The practice of occupational therapy means the therapeutic use of everyday life activities (occupations) with individuals or groups for the purpose of participation in roles and situations in home, school, workplace, community, and other settings. Occupational therapy services are provided for the purpose of promoting health and wellness and to those who have or are at risk for developing an illness, injury, disease, disorder, condition, impairment, disability, activity limitation, or participation restriction. Occupational therapy addresses the physical, cognitive, psychosocial, sensory, and other aspects of performance in a variety of contexts to support engagement in everyday life activities that affect health, well-being, and quality of life (AOTA, 2004).
Organizations—Entities with a common purpose or enterprise such as businesses, industries, or agencies.
Outcomes—What occupational therapy actually achieves for the consumers of its services (adapted from Fuhrer, 1987). Change desired by the client that can focus on any area of the client’s occupational performance (adapted from Kramer et al., 1991).
Outcome measurements—Assessment to gauge the results of a particular intervention or educational program.
P
Participation—“Involvement in a life situation” (WHO, 2001, p. 10).
Performance patterns—Patterns of behavior related to daily life activities that are habitual or routine. They can include habits, routines, rituals, and roles.
Performance skills—The abilities clients demonstrate in the actions they perform
Persons—Individuals, including families, caregivers, teachers, employees, and relevant others.
Personal—“Features of the individual that are not part of a health condition or health status” (WHO, 2001, p. 17). Personal context includes age, gender, socioeconomic, and educational status. Can also include organizational levels (e.g., volunteers, employees) and population levels (e.g., members of a society).
Physical environment—The natural and built nonhuman environment and objects in them.
Play—“Any spontaneous or organized activity that provides enjoyment, entertainment, amusement, or diversion” (Parham & Fazio, 1997, p. 252).
Populations—Large groups as a whole, such as refugees, homeless veterans, and people who need wheelchairs.
Praxis—Skilled purposeful movements (Heilman & Rothi, 1993). The ability to carry out sequential motor acts as part of an overall plan rather than individual acts (Liepmann, 1920). The ability to carry out learned motor activity, including following through on a verbal command, visual spatial construction, ocular and oral–motor skills, imitation of a person or an object, and sequencing actions (Ayres, 1985; Filley, 2001). Organization of temporal sequences of actions within the spatial context; which form meaningful occupations (Blanche & Parham, 2002).
Preparatory methods—Methods and techniques that prepare the client for occupational performance. Used- in preparation for or concurrently with purposeful and occupation-based activities.
Prevention—“Health promotion is equally and essentially concerned with creating the conditions necessary for health at individual, structural, social, and environmental levels through an understanding of the determinants of health: peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, social justice, and equity” (Kronenberg et al., 2005, p. 441). Promoting a healthy lifestyle at the individual, group, organizational, community (societal), and governmental/policy level (adapted from Brownson & Scaffa, 2001).
Process—A description of the way in which occupational therapy practitioners operationalize their expertise to provide services to clients. The process includes evaluation, intervention, and outcome monitoring; occurs within the purview of the domain; and involves collaboration among the occupational therapist, occupational therapy assistant, and the client.
Purposeful activity—A goal-directed behavior or activity within a therapeutically designed context that leads to an occupation or occupations. Specifically selected activities that allow the client to develop skills that enhance occupational engagement.
Q
Quality of life—A client’s dynamic appraisal of life satisfactions (perceptions of progress toward identified goals), self-concept (the composite of beliefs and feelings about themselves), health and functioning (including health status, self-care capabilities), and socioeconomic factors (e.g., vocation, education, income) (adapted from Radomski, 1995; Zhan, 1992).
R
Re-evaluation—A reassessment of the client’s performance and goals to determine the type and amount of change.
Rest—Quiet and effortless actions that interrupt physical and mental activity, resulting in a relaxed state (Nurit & Michel, 2003, p. 227).
Ritual—Symbolic actions with spiritual, cultural, or social meaning, contributing to the client’s identity and reinforcing the client’s values and beliefs (Fiese et al., 2002; Segal, 2004). Rituals are highly symbolic, with a strong affective component and representative of a collection of events.
Roles—Roles are sets of behaviors expected by society, shaped by culture, and may be further conceptualized and defined by the client.
Routines—Patterns of behavior that are observable, regular, repetitive, and that provide structure for daily life. They can be satisfying, promoting, or damaging. Routines require momentary time commitment and are embedded in cultural and ecological contexts (Fiese et al., 2002; Segal, 2004).
S
Self-advocacy—Understanding your strengths and needs, identifying your personal goals, knowing your legal rights and responsibilities, and communicating these to others (Dawson, 2007).
Sensory–perceptual skills—Actions or behaviors a client uses to locate, identify, and respond to sensations and to select, interpret, associate, organize, and remember sensory events via sensations that include visual, auditory, proprioceptive, tactile, olfactory, gustatory, and vestibular sensations.
Scanning/awareness of social change—Ability to be aware of what is going on in society and to note changes to the social environment.
Sleep—“A natural periodic state of rest for the mind and body, in which the eyes usually close and consciousness is completely or partially lost, so that there is a decrease in bodily movement and responsiveness to external stimuli. During sleep the brain in humans and other mammals undergoes a characteristic cycle of brain-wave activity that includes intervals of dreaming” (The Free Dictionary, 2007). A series of activities resulting in going to sleep, staying asleep, and ensuring health and safety through participation in sleep involving engagement with the physical and social environments.
Social environment—Is constructed by the presence, relationships, and expectations of persons, organizations, and populations.
Social justice—“Ethical distribution and sharing of resources, rights, and responsibilities between people, recognizing their equal worth as citizens. [It recognizes] their equal right to be able to meet basic needs, the need to spread opportunities and life chances as widely as possible, and finally the requirement that we reduce and where possible eliminate unjustified inequalities” (Commission on Social Justice, 1994, p. 1). “The promotion of social and economic change to increase individual, community, and political awareness, resources, and opportunity for health and well-being” (Wilcock, 2006, p. 344).
Social participation—“Organized patterns of behavior that are characteristic and expected of an individual in a given position within a social system” (Mosey, 1996, p. 340).
Spirituality—“[T]he personal quest for understanding answers to ultimate questions about life, about meaning, and about relationship with the sacred or transcendent, which may (or may not) lead to or arise from the development of religious rituals and the formation of community” (Moreira-Almeida & Koenig, 2006, p. 844).
T
Temporal—“Location of occupational performance in time” (Neistadt & Crepeau, 1998, p. 292). The experience of time as shaped by engagement in occupations. The temporal aspects of occupations “which contribute to the patterns of daily occupations” are “the rhythm … tempo … synchronization … duration … and sequence” (Larson & Zemke, 2004, p. 82; Zemke, 2004, p. 610). It includes stages of life, time of day, duration, rhythm of activity, or history.
Transactional—A process that involves two or more individuals or elements that reciprocally and continually influence and affect one another through the ongoing relationship (Dickie et al., 2006).
U
Use of virtual tools—The ability to use computer-based simulated environments, such as games or communication systems, to interact with others.
V
Values—Principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile or desirable by the client who holds them (Moyers & Dale, 2007).
Virtual—Environment in which communication occurs by means of airways or computers and an absence of physical contact. Includes simulated or real-time or near-time existence of an environment, such as chat rooms, email, video conferencing, and radio transmissions.
W
Wellness—“An active process through which individuals become aware of and make choices toward a more successful existence” (Hetzler, 1984, p. 1117). Wellness is more than a lack of disease symptoms. It is a state of mental and physical balance and fitness (adapted from Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, 1997, p. 2110).
Work—“Activities needed for engaging in remunerative employment or volunteer activities” (Mosey, 1996, p. 341).
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Larson, E., & Zemke, R. (2004). Shaping the temporal patterns of our lives: The social coordination of occupation. Journal of Occupational Science, 10, 80–89. [Article]
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Law, M., Cooper, B., Strong, S., Stewart, D., Rigby, P., & Letts, L. (1996). Person–environment–occupation model: A transactive approach to occupational performance. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63, 9–23. [Article]
Law, M., Cooper, B., Strong, S., Stewart, D., Rigby, P., & Letts, L. (1996). Person–environment–occupation model: A transactive approach to occupational performance. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63, 9–23. [Article] ×
Law, M., Polatajko, H., Baptiste, W., & Townsend, E. (1997). Core concepts of occupational therapy. In E. Townsend (Ed.), Enabling occupation: An occupational therapy perspective (pp. 29–56). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists.
Law, M., Polatajko, H., Baptiste, W., & Townsend, E. (1997). Core concepts of occupational therapy. In E. Townsend (Ed.), Enabling occupation: An occupational therapy perspective (pp. 29–56). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists.×
Liepmann, H. (1920). Apraxie. Ergebnisse der Gesamten Medizin, 1, 516–543.
Liepmann, H. (1920). Apraxie. Ergebnisse der Gesamten Medizin, 1, 516–543.×
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Lopez, S. J., Snyder, C. R., Magyar-Moe, J., Edwards, L. M., Pedxotti, J. T., Janowski, K., et al. (2004). Strategies for accentuating hope. In P. A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 388–404). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.×
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Mosey, A. C. (1996). Applied scientific inquiry in the health professions: An epistemological orientation (2nd ed.). Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.×
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Moyers, P. A., & Dale, L. M. (2007). The guide to occupational therapy practice (2nd ed.). Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press.×
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SECTION I: PERSON-CENTERED FACTORS
SECTION I: PERSON-CENTERED FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Cognition support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingAttentionNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
MemoryCognitive scienceIntervention planningProductive aging
Executive functionOccupational scienceCognitive-behavioral strategiesRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Social awareness (theory of mind)Rehabilitation science
PsychologyEnvironmental strategiesWork and industry
LearningEducationEmploying learning strategiesMental illness
CommunicationPsychiatryHealth and wellness
Awareness/insightCommunicationActivity analysis
Self-management strategies
Use of virtual tools
Psychological support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingMotivationNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
Self-efficacyOccupational scienceIntervention planningProductive aging
AffectPsychologyCoachingRehabilitation, disability, and participation
MoodSociologyGroup skills
IdentityAnthropologyActivity analysisWork and industry
Self-conceptPathophysiologySelf-management strategiesMental illness
Self-esteemTherapeutic use of selfUse of virtual toolsHealth and wellness
Emotional regulationTherapeutic use of self
Coping
Well-being
Life balance
Physiological support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingPlasticityNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
StrengthAnatomyIntervention planningProductive aging
Muscle endurancePhysiologyActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Muscle toneKinesiologyEnvironmental strategies
Involuntary movement reactionsRehabilitation scienceAssistive technologyWork and industry
Exercise scienceSelf-management strategiesMental illness
Gait patternsPathophysiologyUse of virtual toolsHealth and wellness
Cardiac enduranceNutritional science
FitnessHolistic health
Range of motion
Sleep
General health
Nutritional status
Stress
Protective and repair functions of skin
Sensory/perceptual support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingSensory processingAnatomyAssessmentChildren and youth
SomatosensoryNeuroscienceIntervention planningProductive aging
VisionPhysiologyActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
AuditionOccupational scienceSensory stimulation/enhancement
OlfactoryWork and industry
GustatoryEnvironmental strategiesMental illness
ProprioceptiveAssistive technologyHealth and wellness
TactileSelf-management strategies
VestibularUse of virtual tools
Motor support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingSpontaneous movementNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
ReflexesRehabilitation scienceIntervention planningProductive aging
Postural controlExercise scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Fine motor controlAnatomy and physiologyMotor learning strategies
Gross motor controlAssistive technologyWork and industry
Motor planningEnvironmental strategiesMental illness
Self-management strategiesHealth and wellness
Use of virtual tools
Spirituality support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingMeaningAnthropologyAssessmentChildren and youth
Personal well-beingPhilosophyIntervention planningProductive aging
Mind-body connectionPsychologyActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Life storiesTheologyCoaching
PsychoneuroimmunologyGroup skillsWork and industry
SemioticsInterviewing skillsHealth promotion
Use of virtual tools
SECTION I: PERSON-CENTERED FACTORS
SECTION I: PERSON-CENTERED FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Cognition support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingAttentionNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
MemoryCognitive scienceIntervention planningProductive aging
Executive functionOccupational scienceCognitive-behavioral strategiesRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Social awareness (theory of mind)Rehabilitation science
PsychologyEnvironmental strategiesWork and industry
LearningEducationEmploying learning strategiesMental illness
CommunicationPsychiatryHealth and wellness
Awareness/insightCommunicationActivity analysis
Self-management strategies
Use of virtual tools
Psychological support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingMotivationNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
Self-efficacyOccupational scienceIntervention planningProductive aging
AffectPsychologyCoachingRehabilitation, disability, and participation
MoodSociologyGroup skills
IdentityAnthropologyActivity analysisWork and industry
Self-conceptPathophysiologySelf-management strategiesMental illness
Self-esteemTherapeutic use of selfUse of virtual toolsHealth and wellness
Emotional regulationTherapeutic use of self
Coping
Well-being
Life balance
Physiological support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingPlasticityNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
StrengthAnatomyIntervention planningProductive aging
Muscle endurancePhysiologyActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Muscle toneKinesiologyEnvironmental strategies
Involuntary movement reactionsRehabilitation scienceAssistive technologyWork and industry
Exercise scienceSelf-management strategiesMental illness
Gait patternsPathophysiologyUse of virtual toolsHealth and wellness
Cardiac enduranceNutritional science
FitnessHolistic health
Range of motion
Sleep
General health
Nutritional status
Stress
Protective and repair functions of skin
Sensory/perceptual support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingSensory processingAnatomyAssessmentChildren and youth
SomatosensoryNeuroscienceIntervention planningProductive aging
VisionPhysiologyActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
AuditionOccupational scienceSensory stimulation/enhancement
OlfactoryWork and industry
GustatoryEnvironmental strategiesMental illness
ProprioceptiveAssistive technologyHealth and wellness
TactileSelf-management strategies
VestibularUse of virtual tools
Motor support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingSpontaneous movementNeuroscienceAssessmentChildren and youth
ReflexesRehabilitation scienceIntervention planningProductive aging
Postural controlExercise scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Fine motor controlAnatomy and physiologyMotor learning strategies
Gross motor controlAssistive technologyWork and industry
Motor planningEnvironmental strategiesMental illness
Self-management strategiesHealth and wellness
Use of virtual tools
Spirituality support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingMeaningAnthropologyAssessmentChildren and youth
Personal well-beingPhilosophyIntervention planningProductive aging
Mind-body connectionPsychologyActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Life storiesTheologyCoaching
PsychoneuroimmunologyGroup skillsWork and industry
SemioticsInterviewing skillsHealth promotion
Use of virtual tools
×
SECTION II: ENVIRONMENT-CENTERED FACTORS
SECTION II: ENVIRONMENT-CENTERED FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Social environment support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingAdvocacyEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
Community supportAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
Social capitalSocial sciencesActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Economic capitalArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
Political infrastructureOccupational scienceWork and industry
Family and support groupsPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Policy and access (local, state, national, international)NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
EngineeringCommunity collaboration
Translational scienceLobbying/advocacy/policy development
Social inequality/health disparityHuman development
Women’s studiesTherapeutic use of self
Human rightsRace/ethnicity studiesIdentification of stakeholders; stakeholders’ views and positions
FundingEconomics
Occupational deprivation/justice
Scanning/awareness of social change
Use of virtual tools
Cultural environment support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingIndividual vs. population vs. institution:Environmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
AnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
ValuesSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
CustomsArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
BeliefsOccupational scienceWork and industry
PolicyPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Power/decision-making-NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
Organizational practiceEngineeringCommunity collaboration
PolicyTranslational scienceLobbying/advocacy/policy development
EconomicHuman development
EthicsTherapeutic use of self
PhilosophyUse of virtual tools
Natural environment support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingEcological issuesEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
PhysicalAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
Community planning and developmentSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
ArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
EngineeringOccupational scienceWork and industry
AccessPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Universal designNeuroscienceHealth and wellness
EngineeringCommunity collaboration
Translational scienceLobbying/advocacy/policy development
Human geography
AgricultureIdentification of stakeholders, stakeholders’ views and positions
Natural resources
Scanning/awareness of social change
Use of virtual tools
Design and technology support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingIndividualEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
Assistive technologyAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
– ErgonomicsSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
– Accessible designArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
– ParticipationOccupational scienceWork and industry
Community planningPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Universal designNeuroscienceHealth and wellness
UrbanizationEngineeringCommunity collaboration
Sustainable developmentAnthropometricsLobbying/advocacy/policy development
Community developmentTranslational science
Traffic planningHuman geographyDesign of technology
– TransportationDesign theoryComputer interaction
Participation and accessComputer scienceUse of virtual tools
Information technology
Environmental support (assistive technology) support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingVirtualEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
PhysicalAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
Social scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
ArchitectureWritten and oral communication
Occupational scienceWork and industry
Political scienceUse of virtual toolsMental illness
NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
Rehabilitation engineering
Design theory
Translational science
Human geography
Environment for occupational performance support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingTherapeutic impact of environmentEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
AnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
ParticipationSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Person-environment fitArchitecturePerson environment fit/interaction
Occupational scienceWork and industry
Political scienceWritten and oral communicationMental illness
NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
Rehabilitation engineeringTherapeutic use of self
Translational scienceUse of virtual tools
Human development
SECTION II: ENVIRONMENT-CENTERED FACTORS
SECTION II: ENVIRONMENT-CENTERED FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Social environment support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingAdvocacyEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
Community supportAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
Social capitalSocial sciencesActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Economic capitalArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
Political infrastructureOccupational scienceWork and industry
Family and support groupsPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Policy and access (local, state, national, international)NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
EngineeringCommunity collaboration
Translational scienceLobbying/advocacy/policy development
Social inequality/health disparityHuman development
Women’s studiesTherapeutic use of self
Human rightsRace/ethnicity studiesIdentification of stakeholders; stakeholders’ views and positions
FundingEconomics
Occupational deprivation/justice
Scanning/awareness of social change
Use of virtual tools
Cultural environment support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingIndividual vs. population vs. institution:Environmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
AnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
ValuesSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
CustomsArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
BeliefsOccupational scienceWork and industry
PolicyPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Power/decision-making-NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
Organizational practiceEngineeringCommunity collaboration
PolicyTranslational scienceLobbying/advocacy/policy development
EconomicHuman development
EthicsTherapeutic use of self
PhilosophyUse of virtual tools
Natural environment support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingEcological issuesEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
PhysicalAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
Community planning and developmentSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
ArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
EngineeringOccupational scienceWork and industry
AccessPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Universal designNeuroscienceHealth and wellness
EngineeringCommunity collaboration
Translational scienceLobbying/advocacy/policy development
Human geography
AgricultureIdentification of stakeholders, stakeholders’ views and positions
Natural resources
Scanning/awareness of social change
Use of virtual tools
Design and technology support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingIndividualEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
Assistive technologyAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
– ErgonomicsSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
– Accessible designArchitectureWritten and oral communication; interviewing
– ParticipationOccupational scienceWork and industry
Community planningPolitical scienceSocial interaction/community interactionMental illness
Universal designNeuroscienceHealth and wellness
UrbanizationEngineeringCommunity collaboration
Sustainable developmentAnthropometricsLobbying/advocacy/policy development
Community developmentTranslational science
Traffic planningHuman geographyDesign of technology
– TransportationDesign theoryComputer interaction
Participation and accessComputer scienceUse of virtual tools
Information technology
Environmental support (assistive technology) support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingVirtualEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
PhysicalAnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
Social scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
ArchitectureWritten and oral communication
Occupational scienceWork and industry
Political scienceUse of virtual toolsMental illness
NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
Rehabilitation engineering
Design theory
Translational science
Human geography
Environment for occupational performance support of or impact on performance, participation, and well-beingTherapeutic impact of environmentEnvironmental psychologyAssessmentChildren and youth
AnthropologyIntervention planningProductive aging
ParticipationSocial scienceActivity analysisRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Person-environment fitArchitecturePerson environment fit/interaction
Occupational scienceWork and industry
Political scienceWritten and oral communicationMental illness
NeuroscienceHealth and wellness
Rehabilitation engineeringTherapeutic use of self
Translational scienceUse of virtual tools
Human development
×
SECTION III: OCCUPATION-CENTERED FACTORS
SECTION III: OCCUPATION-CENTERED FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Doing—Person-Level ApproachOccupationOccupational scienceApply occupation principles to help individuals and families engage in activities that are central to their doingChildren and youth
Occupational performancePsychologyProductive aging
ActivitySociologyRehabilitation, disability, and participation
HabitDisability studies
InterestAnthropologyWork and industry
MotivationEducationImplement successful applications to address the person and environmental factors that support the threshold concepts that are central to doingMental illness
RoleCultural studiesHealth and wellness
RoutineEpidemiology
VolitionEconomics
FlowPolitical science
Learning styleComputer science
RitualHistoryImplement self-management approaches to help people manage health and performance problems
Engineering
Natural sciences
Rehabilitation science
PhilosophyEmploy therapeutic strategies to enable doing by individuals, including therapeutic use of self, therapeutic rapport, empowerment, enablement principles, learning strategies, cultural sensitivity, linguistic competency
Doing—Organization and population approachesOccupationEpidemologyApply occupation principles to help organizations and populations engage in activities that are central to their doingChildren and youth
Occupational performanceCognitive–behavioral sciences learningProductive aging
ActivityRehabilitation, disability, and participation
HabitHealth service research
InterestOrganizational behaviorWork and industry
MotivationPublic healthDescribe the behaviors of organizations and populationsMental illness
RoleHealth behaviorHealth and wellness
RoutineHuman factors
VolitionEducationIdentify incidence and prevalence
FlowSpecial education
Learning styleSociologyUse context as a tool
RitualTeach strategies to public
Classifications of occupational activityInternational Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO, 2001)Occupational scienceIdentify the occupational activities of clients organizations and populationsChildren and youth
Rehabilitation scienceProductive aging
Fine artsRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Learning/applying knowledgeEducationChoose assessments for specific occupational actvities identified by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Occupational Therapy Practice Framework classifications
General tasks/demandsInternational Classification of Functioning, Disability and HealthWork and industry
CommunicationMental illness
MobilityHealth and wellness
Self-careOccupational Therapy Practice Framework
Domestic life
Interpersonal interactions and relationshipsWork/vocational studies
Special education
Major life areasRecreational studies
Community, civic, and social lifePsychology/development
SociologyHelp clients achieve goals they perceive as necessary for specific occupational activities
Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (AOTA, 2008)Political science
Communication
Neuroscience
ADLs
IADLs
Rest and sleep
Work
Play
Leisure
Social participation
Related concepts
Tasks
Core occupational therapy outcomesAdaptation/copingOccupational scienceIdentify tools to record progress made in occupational therapy interventionsChildren and youth
Competence/mastery Independence/autonomyPsychologyProductive aging
SociologyRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Occupational performance/functionDisability studies
Rehabilitation scienceAdminister measuresWork and industry
EducationRecord dataMental illness
Report data for quality assurance and other purposesHealth and wellness
Table Footer NoteNote. ADLs = activities of daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living.
Note. ADLs = activities of daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living.×
SECTION III: OCCUPATION-CENTERED FACTORS
SECTION III: OCCUPATION-CENTERED FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Doing—Person-Level ApproachOccupationOccupational scienceApply occupation principles to help individuals and families engage in activities that are central to their doingChildren and youth
Occupational performancePsychologyProductive aging
ActivitySociologyRehabilitation, disability, and participation
HabitDisability studies
InterestAnthropologyWork and industry
MotivationEducationImplement successful applications to address the person and environmental factors that support the threshold concepts that are central to doingMental illness
RoleCultural studiesHealth and wellness
RoutineEpidemiology
VolitionEconomics
FlowPolitical science
Learning styleComputer science
RitualHistoryImplement self-management approaches to help people manage health and performance problems
Engineering
Natural sciences
Rehabilitation science
PhilosophyEmploy therapeutic strategies to enable doing by individuals, including therapeutic use of self, therapeutic rapport, empowerment, enablement principles, learning strategies, cultural sensitivity, linguistic competency
Doing—Organization and population approachesOccupationEpidemologyApply occupation principles to help organizations and populations engage in activities that are central to their doingChildren and youth
Occupational performanceCognitive–behavioral sciences learningProductive aging
ActivityRehabilitation, disability, and participation
HabitHealth service research
InterestOrganizational behaviorWork and industry
MotivationPublic healthDescribe the behaviors of organizations and populationsMental illness
RoleHealth behaviorHealth and wellness
RoutineHuman factors
VolitionEducationIdentify incidence and prevalence
FlowSpecial education
Learning styleSociologyUse context as a tool
RitualTeach strategies to public
Classifications of occupational activityInternational Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO, 2001)Occupational scienceIdentify the occupational activities of clients organizations and populationsChildren and youth
Rehabilitation scienceProductive aging
Fine artsRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Learning/applying knowledgeEducationChoose assessments for specific occupational actvities identified by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Occupational Therapy Practice Framework classifications
General tasks/demandsInternational Classification of Functioning, Disability and HealthWork and industry
CommunicationMental illness
MobilityHealth and wellness
Self-careOccupational Therapy Practice Framework
Domestic life
Interpersonal interactions and relationshipsWork/vocational studies
Special education
Major life areasRecreational studies
Community, civic, and social lifePsychology/development
SociologyHelp clients achieve goals they perceive as necessary for specific occupational activities
Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (AOTA, 2008)Political science
Communication
Neuroscience
ADLs
IADLs
Rest and sleep
Work
Play
Leisure
Social participation
Related concepts
Tasks
Core occupational therapy outcomesAdaptation/copingOccupational scienceIdentify tools to record progress made in occupational therapy interventionsChildren and youth
Competence/mastery Independence/autonomyPsychologyProductive aging
SociologyRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Occupational performance/functionDisability studies
Rehabilitation scienceAdminister measuresWork and industry
EducationRecord dataMental illness
Report data for quality assurance and other purposesHealth and wellness
Table Footer NoteNote. ADLs = activities of daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living.
Note. ADLs = activities of daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living.×
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SECTION IV: PROFESSIONAL and INTERPERSONAL FACTORS
SECTION IV: PROFESSIONAL and INTERPERSONAL FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Ethics and advocacySocial responsibility and serviceMoral theory and ethicsCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Productive aging
Public serviceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Ethical behaviorFlexibility in adapting to practice settings
Equity in service accessWork and industry
Political activismQualityMental illness
Health/public policyUnderstanding of workplaceHealth and wellness
Research skills
CommunicationElectronic communication and information resourcesInformation technologies Management sciences Social sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Productive aging
Rehabilitation, disability, and participation
Social networksApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Conflict resolutionWork and industry
TeamworkMental illness
Public informationHealth and wellness
Communicating with lay audiencesUses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines to unique and novel situations Interpersonal communication
Working with media
Writing for and speaking with lay public
CultureDiversitySocial sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Cultural sensitivityProductive aging
Health beliefs and practicesRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Non-traditional, alterntive, and complementary health practiceApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Work and industry
Mental illness
Health and wellness
Uses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines to unique and novel situations
Professional developmentCurrency in practiceHealth management sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Lifelong professional developmentProductive aging
Occupational therapy practiceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
MentorApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Social systemsInformation technologiesWork and industry
Leadership developmentMental illness
Health and wellness
Uses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines to unique and novel situations
Professional advocacy
Evidence-based practiceAccountability for health care quality and out-comesHealth management sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Productive aging
Occupational therapy practiceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Health care utilizationApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Outcome measurementsInformation technologiesWork and industry
Health services researchMental illness
Health and wellness
Uses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines Evidence-based outcomes and research
Business fundamentalsIdentifying business opportunitiesHealth mangement sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Information technologiesProductive aging
Analyzing a business conceptPolitical scienceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Legal, policy, and regulatory issuesEmerging areas of practice
Completing feasibility studiesEntrepreneurial skillsWork and industry
Communication scienceUndertakes self- and business assessment to identify opportunities and possesses cognitive astuteness, technical expertise, and emotional intelligence to create successMental illness
Creating vision statementsHealth and wellness
Creating mission statements
Understanding the legal frameworks/structures within which businesses function
Development of business plans
Uses analytical skills to assess business concepts and create clear vision and implementation strategies
Development of marketing plans
Financial management
Start-up strategies
Lobbying and advocacyFlexibility and commitment
Policy and legal framework analysis
Advocacy
SECTION IV: PROFESSIONAL and INTERPERSONAL FACTORS
SECTION IV: PROFESSIONAL and INTERPERSONAL FACTORS×
TopicConceptsScienceSkillsArea of Practice
Ethics and advocacySocial responsibility and serviceMoral theory and ethicsCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Productive aging
Public serviceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Ethical behaviorFlexibility in adapting to practice settings
Equity in service accessWork and industry
Political activismQualityMental illness
Health/public policyUnderstanding of workplaceHealth and wellness
Research skills
CommunicationElectronic communication and information resourcesInformation technologies Management sciences Social sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Productive aging
Rehabilitation, disability, and participation
Social networksApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Conflict resolutionWork and industry
TeamworkMental illness
Public informationHealth and wellness
Communicating with lay audiencesUses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines to unique and novel situations Interpersonal communication
Working with media
Writing for and speaking with lay public
CultureDiversitySocial sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Cultural sensitivityProductive aging
Health beliefs and practicesRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Non-traditional, alterntive, and complementary health practiceApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Work and industry
Mental illness
Health and wellness
Uses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines to unique and novel situations
Professional developmentCurrency in practiceHealth management sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Lifelong professional developmentProductive aging
Occupational therapy practiceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
MentorApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Social systemsInformation technologiesWork and industry
Leadership developmentMental illness
Health and wellness
Uses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines to unique and novel situations
Professional advocacy
Evidence-based practiceAccountability for health care quality and out-comesHealth management sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Productive aging
Occupational therapy practiceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Health care utilizationApplies analytical reasoning in order to choose or create alternative solutions to clinical problems
Outcome measurementsInformation technologiesWork and industry
Health services researchMental illness
Health and wellness
Uses analytical skills to adapt evidence-based guidelines Evidence-based outcomes and research
Business fundamentalsIdentifying business opportunitiesHealth mangement sciencesCritical thinking, reflection, and problem-solving skillsChildren and youth
Information technologiesProductive aging
Analyzing a business conceptPolitical scienceRehabilitation, disability, and participation
Legal, policy, and regulatory issuesEmerging areas of practice
Completing feasibility studiesEntrepreneurial skillsWork and industry
Communication scienceUndertakes self- and business assessment to identify opportunities and possesses cognitive astuteness, technical expertise, and emotional intelligence to create successMental illness
Creating vision statementsHealth and wellness
Creating mission statements
Understanding the legal frameworks/structures within which businesses function
Development of business plans
Uses analytical skills to assess business concepts and create clear vision and implementation strategies
Development of marketing plans
Financial management
Start-up strategies
Lobbying and advocacyFlexibility and commitment
Policy and legal framework analysis
Advocacy
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