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Research Article  |   July 2008
Reliability and Validity of the Test of In-Hand Manipulation in Children Ages 5 to 6 Years
Author Affiliations
  • Karina Pont, BAppSC(Occ. Ther.) Hons., is Doctoral Student, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • Margaret Wallen, BAppSc(Occ. Ther.), MA, is Senior Occupational Therapist–Research, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, and Adjunct Lecturer, Discipline of Occupational Therapy, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales, Australia
  • Anita Bundy, ScD, OTR, FAOTA, is Chair, Discipline of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, New South Wales 1825 Australia; a.bundy@usyd.edu.au
  • Jane Case-Smith, EdD, OTR/L, FAOTA, is Professor and Chair, Division of Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Medical Professions, The Ohio State University, Columbus
Article Information
Children and Youth
Research Article   |   July 2008
Reliability and Validity of the Test of In-Hand Manipulation in Children Ages 5 to 6 Years
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, July/August 2008, Vol. 62, 384-392. doi:10.5014/ajot.62.4.384
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, July/August 2008, Vol. 62, 384-392. doi:10.5014/ajot.62.4.384
Abstract

The Test of In-Hand Manipulation (TIHM; Case-Smith, 2000) is a five-task test that uses a 9-hole pegboard to examine 2 key components of in-hand manipulation: rotation and translation with stabilization. The authors used Rasch modeling to examine the TIHM’s construct validity, interrater reliability, and test–retest reliability in 45 typically developing children ages 5.5 years to 6.5 years. A version of the test, revised using Rasch modeling, was found to have evidence for adequate construct validity and excellent interrater reliability. However, test–retest reliability over a 2-week retest period was not supported. The TIHM demonstrates potential as a clinically useful assessment of in-hand manipulation. The test does not examine all aspects of in-hand manipulation, however, and it may have limited sensitivity to the performance of finger-to-palm and palm-to-finger translation. Further validation of the test is needed before the TIHM can confidently be used in occupational therapy practice.