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Research Article  |   November 2009
Factor Structure of Four Visual–Motor Instruments Commonly Used to Evaluate School-Age Children
Author Affiliations
  • Ted Brown, PhD, MSc, MPA, OT(C), OTR, AccOT, is Senior Lecturer and Postgraduate Coordinator, Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Primary Health Care, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing, and Health Sciences, Monash University–Peninsula Campus, Building G, 4th Floor, McMahons Road, PO Box 527, Frankston, Victoria 3199 Australia; ted.brown@med.monash.edu.au
  • Carolyn Unsworth, PhD, BAppSci(OccTher), OTR, AccOT, is Associate Professor, School of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia
  • Carissa Lyons, BPsych, is Research Assistant, Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing, and Health Sciences; Monash University–Peninsula Campus, Frankston, Victoria, Australia
Article Information
Childhood and Youth
Research Article   |   November 2009
Factor Structure of Four Visual–Motor Instruments Commonly Used to Evaluate School-Age Children
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, November/December 2009, Vol. 63, 710-723. doi:10.5014/ajot.63.6.710
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, November/December 2009, Vol. 63, 710-723. doi:10.5014/ajot.63.6.710
Abstract

OBJECTIVE. Having access to high-quality, rigorously developed, valid visual–motor integration assessment tools is the first step in the process of providing effective clinical services to children presenting with visual–motor integration problems. The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure of four visual–motor integration instruments through factor analysis.

METHOD. The participants included 400 children ages 5 to 12, recruited from six schools in the Melbourne metropolitan area, Victoria, Australia. Children completed the Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration (VMI), Test of Visual–Motor Integration (TVMI), Test of Visual–Motor Skills–Revised (TVMS–R), and Slosson Visual–Motor Performance Test (SVMPT). The factor analysis was completed using SPSS.

RESULTS. Results indicated that the VMI displayed six factors; TVMI, three factors; TVMS–R, four factors; and SVMPT, three factors.

CONCLUSION. The VMI, TVMI, TVMS–R, and SVMPT exhibited multidimensionality, and it is recommended that the instruments be revised to enhance their construct validity and unidimensionality.