Open Access
Brief Report  |   May 2014
Research Opportunities in the Area of Early Childhood: Birth Through 5 Years
Article Information
Early Intervention / Evidence-Based Practice / Pediatric Evaluation and Intervention / Research Opportunities
Brief Report   |   May 2014
Research Opportunities in the Area of Early Childhood: Birth Through 5 Years
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, May/June 2014, Vol. 68, 367-370. doi:10.5014/ajot.2014.683002
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, May/June 2014, Vol. 68, 367-370. doi:10.5014/ajot.2014.683002
Abstract

The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) Evidence-Based Practice Project has developed a table summarizing the research opportunities on early childhood. The table provides an overview of the state of current available evidence on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice and is based on the systematic reviews from the AOTA Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines Series. Researchers, students, and clinicians can use this information in developing innovative research to answer important questions within the occupational therapy field.

Planning a research project requires consideration of many factors. Level of interest and knowledge in a specific area, access to appropriate populations of participants, support of mentors and other researchers, and funding availability all help determine the focus of a future project. An additional component to be considered is whether adequate, up-to-date research has already been completed on a topic; if sufficient evidence is available in a given core area, this area might not be the best choice for another research project.
The best research topic may be one in which either little research has been done or the research to date is insufficient, inconclusive, or mixed. In addition, when research conducted to date provides a low level of evidence and is of limited quality, additional high-quality research in the area is needed.
The “Research Opportunities Table on Early Childhood: Birth Through 5 Years” provides an overview of the state of current available evidence on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice. The table is based on the systematic reviews from the AOTA Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines Series. The table lists specific interventions and indicates either that the evidence is sufficient to support the intervention or that moderate, mixed, or few studies support the intervention and therefore it is a priority research area. Please refer to Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Early Childhood: Birth Through 5 Years (Clark & Kingsley, 2013) and the American Journal of Occupational Therapy Special Issue on Occupational Therapy and Early Intervention/Early Childhood (Case-Smith, 2013) for more information on the topic area and the systematic review process.
This table also is posted online for researchers to use to inform the occupational therapy community about their work. The table is linked to Google Drive and offers a place for researchers to include information on recently completed and ongoing research. It is hoped that this information will make the research planning process easier, minimize duplication of research efforts, and stimulate discussions among researchers with similar interests, which can then facilitate the creation of research networks and multisite studies. Researchers, students, and clinicians can use this information in developing innovative research to answer important questions within the occupational therapy field. To add current or ongoing research to the table, visit http://www.aota.org/researchopportunitiestables.
Researchers are also encouraged to enter their projects into AOTA’s Researcher Database at http://myaota.aota.org/research/. This database provides AOTA with information such as relevant clinical settings and populations, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health level (World Health Organization, 2001), funder (if any), and key words to help guide research advocacy and policy initiatives.
Research Opportunities Table on Early Childhood: Birth Through 5 Years
Research Opportunities Table on Early Childhood: Birth Through 5 Years×
ThemeSpecific InterventionStrength of Evidence
Social–Emotional Functioning
Touch-based interventionsInfant massage to improve sleep and relaxation, reduce crying, and reduce hormones affecting stress (no cognitive or behavioral component)Research sufficient
Massage before bed to improve attention, reduce restless and impulse behavior, and decrease stereotypical behaviorsPriority research area
Kangaroo Care to promote social–emotional development, eye–hand coordination, and speechPriority research area
Relationship-based interventionsCaregiver-facilitated play to reduce anxiety in children and parents and to increase developmentally competent playPriority research area
Responsive teaching methods by parents to increase attention, persistence, interest, cooperation, initiation, joint attention, affect, and social–emotional functioningPriority research area
Interactive or play-based activitiesDiscrete trial combined with either semistructured play sessions or pivotal response training to improve structured playResearch sufficient
Discrete trial combined with either semistructured play session or pivotal response training to improve symbolic playPriority research area
Naturalistic interventionsMixed play groups (children with and without disabilities) to improve responsiveness to peers and improve total positive behavior for both groupsPriority research area
Instruction of preschool pairs in using a computer to increase active waiting, turn taking, and positive affectPriority research area
Visually scheduled and scripted instructor-guided play to improve dyad engagementPriority research area
Instruction-based interventionsModeling, play-based activities, rehearsal of social behaviors, and prompting to improve social behaviorsResearch sufficient
Direct teaching with video modeling and applied behavior analysis to improve social skillsResearch sufficient
Pivotal response training and environmental arrangement to prolong social interactionResearch sufficient
Social Stories to reduce inappropriate behaviors and increase appropriate behaviorsPriority research area
Therapist-selected toys and objectsSocial toys to promote cooperative play and positive social outcomesPriority research area
Mixed-level play groups for children with disabilities and peers with better play skills to improve social outcomesPriority research area
Feeding, Eating, and Swallowing
Behavioral-based interventionsBehavioral interventions to increase calorie intakePriority research area
Behavioral interventions to wean from tube feedingPriority research area
Parent-directed educational interventionsIndividualized behavioral feeding intervention to increase physical growth of infantsPriority research area
Parent education and parent-directed intervention to reduce maternal stressPriority research area
Behavioral interventions to increase food acceptance during mealtimesPriority research area
Parent education and parent-directed intervention to improve mealtime behaviors and reduce problem behaviorsPriority research area
Physiological interventionsOral stimulation programs to increase nonnutritive sucking pressure and quantity of milk ingested during oral feedingResearch sufficient
Oral stimulation programs, skin-to-skin contact, and sensory–motor and oral–motor interventions to reduce length of hospital stayResearch sufficient
Tactile and multisensory interventions to improve nipple feedingPriority research area
Oral stimulation, early introduction of oral feeding, and Votja therapy to improve the transition from tube to oral feedingPriority research area
Cognitive Interventions
Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) interventionsUse of Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program to improve infant cognitive developmentPriority research area
NICU- and home-based interventionsMultisensory approach addressing auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular input in the hospital and at home until 2 mo corrected age to improve mental or motor performancePriority research area
Use of a parent education program that includes information on behavior, interaction with infants, and activities to promote developmentPriority research area
Early intervention program for preterm infants to improve cognitive outcomes in infancy and preschoolPriority research area
Interventions to promote joint attentionIntervention incorporating joint attention to improve maintenance of coordinated looks and increased acknowledgment of novel objectsPriority research area
Early intervention program started in the hospital and continued with home visits to improve joint attention and initiation of object requestsPriority research area
Discrete trial training and pivotal response training when addressing joint attention to improve social limitations, spontaneous speech, and play skillsPriority research area
Comparison of joint attention interventions and interventions using symbolic play and applied behavioral analysisPriority research area
Motor Performance
Developmental interventions for at-risk infantsCaregiver-delivered home program for infants updated at 1, 2, and 3 mo to improve motor performancePriority research area
Developmental motor interventions to improve motor outcomesPriority research area
5-wk parent education program that models appropriate motor developmentPriority research area
Interventions for children with or at risk for cerebral palsy (CP)Constraint induced movement therapy to improve motor performancePriority research area
Neurodevelopmental treatment to improve motor performancePriority research area
Child-focused and context-focused intervention to improve motor performancePriority research area
Conductive education to improve motor performancePriority research area
Visual–motor interventions for children with developmental delaysTherapist-led sensorimotor therapy to improve gross motor functional skillsPriority research area
Child-led sensorimotor therapy to improve fine motor skillsPriority research area
Occupational therapy for preschoolers to improve visual–motor and fine motor skills, manipulation, and motor accuracyPriority research area
Direct or indirect occupational therapy to improve visual–motor skillsPriority research area
Service Delivery in Early Childhood
SettingsInterventions at more than one setting (e.g., classroom and home) to improve performance outcomesPriority research area
Participation in a Head Start program at age 2 yr rather than 3 yr to reduce maternal depressionPriority research area
Longer duration of home-based behavioral treatment to improve outcomes in children with autism or pervasive developmental disorderPriority research area
Routine-based interventionsFamily-centered help giving that incorporates support to strengthen the family and improve satisfaction, parenting behavior, personal and family well-being, social support, and child behaviorPriority research area
Routines-based or contextualized interventions to improve affect and engagementPriority research area
Everyday learning opportunities to improve parenting competence, parental well-being, and parent judgment of child progressPriority research area
Interventions during family routines to extinguish target behaviors and improve generalization of skillsPriority research area
Family-centered service delivery to improve satisfaction and reduce family stressPriority research area
Parent trainingParenting programs to improve parent-based outcomes (e.g., parent stress, anxiety, depression)Research sufficient
Early Head Start parenting classes to improve cognitive outcomes in early childhoodPriority research area
Brief therapist-led parenting education to improve behavioral outcomes in young childrenPriority research area
Parent training to improve satisfaction and quality of lifePriority research area
Community-based parenting group to reduce child difficulty and conduct problemsPriority research area
Research Opportunities Table on Early Childhood: Birth Through 5 Years
Research Opportunities Table on Early Childhood: Birth Through 5 Years×
ThemeSpecific InterventionStrength of Evidence
Social–Emotional Functioning
Touch-based interventionsInfant massage to improve sleep and relaxation, reduce crying, and reduce hormones affecting stress (no cognitive or behavioral component)Research sufficient
Massage before bed to improve attention, reduce restless and impulse behavior, and decrease stereotypical behaviorsPriority research area
Kangaroo Care to promote social–emotional development, eye–hand coordination, and speechPriority research area
Relationship-based interventionsCaregiver-facilitated play to reduce anxiety in children and parents and to increase developmentally competent playPriority research area
Responsive teaching methods by parents to increase attention, persistence, interest, cooperation, initiation, joint attention, affect, and social–emotional functioningPriority research area
Interactive or play-based activitiesDiscrete trial combined with either semistructured play sessions or pivotal response training to improve structured playResearch sufficient
Discrete trial combined with either semistructured play session or pivotal response training to improve symbolic playPriority research area
Naturalistic interventionsMixed play groups (children with and without disabilities) to improve responsiveness to peers and improve total positive behavior for both groupsPriority research area
Instruction of preschool pairs in using a computer to increase active waiting, turn taking, and positive affectPriority research area
Visually scheduled and scripted instructor-guided play to improve dyad engagementPriority research area
Instruction-based interventionsModeling, play-based activities, rehearsal of social behaviors, and prompting to improve social behaviorsResearch sufficient
Direct teaching with video modeling and applied behavior analysis to improve social skillsResearch sufficient
Pivotal response training and environmental arrangement to prolong social interactionResearch sufficient
Social Stories to reduce inappropriate behaviors and increase appropriate behaviorsPriority research area
Therapist-selected toys and objectsSocial toys to promote cooperative play and positive social outcomesPriority research area
Mixed-level play groups for children with disabilities and peers with better play skills to improve social outcomesPriority research area
Feeding, Eating, and Swallowing
Behavioral-based interventionsBehavioral interventions to increase calorie intakePriority research area
Behavioral interventions to wean from tube feedingPriority research area
Parent-directed educational interventionsIndividualized behavioral feeding intervention to increase physical growth of infantsPriority research area
Parent education and parent-directed intervention to reduce maternal stressPriority research area
Behavioral interventions to increase food acceptance during mealtimesPriority research area
Parent education and parent-directed intervention to improve mealtime behaviors and reduce problem behaviorsPriority research area
Physiological interventionsOral stimulation programs to increase nonnutritive sucking pressure and quantity of milk ingested during oral feedingResearch sufficient
Oral stimulation programs, skin-to-skin contact, and sensory–motor and oral–motor interventions to reduce length of hospital stayResearch sufficient
Tactile and multisensory interventions to improve nipple feedingPriority research area
Oral stimulation, early introduction of oral feeding, and Votja therapy to improve the transition from tube to oral feedingPriority research area
Cognitive Interventions
Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) interventionsUse of Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program to improve infant cognitive developmentPriority research area
NICU- and home-based interventionsMultisensory approach addressing auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular input in the hospital and at home until 2 mo corrected age to improve mental or motor performancePriority research area
Use of a parent education program that includes information on behavior, interaction with infants, and activities to promote developmentPriority research area
Early intervention program for preterm infants to improve cognitive outcomes in infancy and preschoolPriority research area
Interventions to promote joint attentionIntervention incorporating joint attention to improve maintenance of coordinated looks and increased acknowledgment of novel objectsPriority research area
Early intervention program started in the hospital and continued with home visits to improve joint attention and initiation of object requestsPriority research area
Discrete trial training and pivotal response training when addressing joint attention to improve social limitations, spontaneous speech, and play skillsPriority research area
Comparison of joint attention interventions and interventions using symbolic play and applied behavioral analysisPriority research area
Motor Performance
Developmental interventions for at-risk infantsCaregiver-delivered home program for infants updated at 1, 2, and 3 mo to improve motor performancePriority research area
Developmental motor interventions to improve motor outcomesPriority research area
5-wk parent education program that models appropriate motor developmentPriority research area
Interventions for children with or at risk for cerebral palsy (CP)Constraint induced movement therapy to improve motor performancePriority research area
Neurodevelopmental treatment to improve motor performancePriority research area
Child-focused and context-focused intervention to improve motor performancePriority research area
Conductive education to improve motor performancePriority research area
Visual–motor interventions for children with developmental delaysTherapist-led sensorimotor therapy to improve gross motor functional skillsPriority research area
Child-led sensorimotor therapy to improve fine motor skillsPriority research area
Occupational therapy for preschoolers to improve visual–motor and fine motor skills, manipulation, and motor accuracyPriority research area
Direct or indirect occupational therapy to improve visual–motor skillsPriority research area
Service Delivery in Early Childhood
SettingsInterventions at more than one setting (e.g., classroom and home) to improve performance outcomesPriority research area
Participation in a Head Start program at age 2 yr rather than 3 yr to reduce maternal depressionPriority research area
Longer duration of home-based behavioral treatment to improve outcomes in children with autism or pervasive developmental disorderPriority research area
Routine-based interventionsFamily-centered help giving that incorporates support to strengthen the family and improve satisfaction, parenting behavior, personal and family well-being, social support, and child behaviorPriority research area
Routines-based or contextualized interventions to improve affect and engagementPriority research area
Everyday learning opportunities to improve parenting competence, parental well-being, and parent judgment of child progressPriority research area
Interventions during family routines to extinguish target behaviors and improve generalization of skillsPriority research area
Family-centered service delivery to improve satisfaction and reduce family stressPriority research area
Parent trainingParenting programs to improve parent-based outcomes (e.g., parent stress, anxiety, depression)Research sufficient
Early Head Start parenting classes to improve cognitive outcomes in early childhoodPriority research area
Brief therapist-led parenting education to improve behavioral outcomes in young childrenPriority research area
Parent training to improve satisfaction and quality of lifePriority research area
Community-based parenting group to reduce child difficulty and conduct problemsPriority research area
×
Acknowledgments
AOTA acknowledges the work of Matthew Bernardo (emerging leader mentee) and Melissa Stutzbach (fieldwork student), who participated in the development of the Research Opportunities tables while at the American Occupational Therapy Association in Bethesda, MD. This work is based on the American Journal of Occupational Therapy Special Issue on Occupational Therapy and Early Intervention/Early Childhood (Case-Smith, 2013) and the Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Early Childhood: Birth Through 5 Years (Clark & Kingsley, 2013), all from the AOTA Evidence-Based Practice Project.
Case-Smith, J. (Ed.). (2013). Systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions used in occupational therapy early childhood services [Special issue]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(4).
Case-Smith, J. (Ed.). (2013). Systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions used in occupational therapy early childhood services [Special issue]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(4).×
Clark, G., & Kingsley, K. (2013). Occupational therapy practice guidelines for early childhood: Birth through 5 years. Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press.
Clark, G., & Kingsley, K. (2013). Occupational therapy practice guidelines for early childhood: Birth through 5 years. Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press.×
World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health. Geneva: Author.
World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health. Geneva: Author.×
Research Opportunities Table on Early Childhood: Birth Through 5 Years
Research Opportunities Table on Early Childhood: Birth Through 5 Years×
ThemeSpecific InterventionStrength of Evidence
Social–Emotional Functioning
Touch-based interventionsInfant massage to improve sleep and relaxation, reduce crying, and reduce hormones affecting stress (no cognitive or behavioral component)Research sufficient
Massage before bed to improve attention, reduce restless and impulse behavior, and decrease stereotypical behaviorsPriority research area
Kangaroo Care to promote social–emotional development, eye–hand coordination, and speechPriority research area
Relationship-based interventionsCaregiver-facilitated play to reduce anxiety in children and parents and to increase developmentally competent playPriority research area
Responsive teaching methods by parents to increase attention, persistence, interest, cooperation, initiation, joint attention, affect, and social–emotional functioningPriority research area
Interactive or play-based activitiesDiscrete trial combined with either semistructured play sessions or pivotal response training to improve structured playResearch sufficient
Discrete trial combined with either semistructured play session or pivotal response training to improve symbolic playPriority research area
Naturalistic interventionsMixed play groups (children with and without disabilities) to improve responsiveness to peers and improve total positive behavior for both groupsPriority research area
Instruction of preschool pairs in using a computer to increase active waiting, turn taking, and positive affectPriority research area
Visually scheduled and scripted instructor-guided play to improve dyad engagementPriority research area
Instruction-based interventionsModeling, play-based activities, rehearsal of social behaviors, and prompting to improve social behaviorsResearch sufficient
Direct teaching with video modeling and applied behavior analysis to improve social skillsResearch sufficient
Pivotal response training and environmental arrangement to prolong social interactionResearch sufficient
Social Stories to reduce inappropriate behaviors and increase appropriate behaviorsPriority research area
Therapist-selected toys and objectsSocial toys to promote cooperative play and positive social outcomesPriority research area
Mixed-level play groups for children with disabilities and peers with better play skills to improve social outcomesPriority research area
Feeding, Eating, and Swallowing
Behavioral-based interventionsBehavioral interventions to increase calorie intakePriority research area
Behavioral interventions to wean from tube feedingPriority research area
Parent-directed educational interventionsIndividualized behavioral feeding intervention to increase physical growth of infantsPriority research area
Parent education and parent-directed intervention to reduce maternal stressPriority research area
Behavioral interventions to increase food acceptance during mealtimesPriority research area
Parent education and parent-directed intervention to improve mealtime behaviors and reduce problem behaviorsPriority research area
Physiological interventionsOral stimulation programs to increase nonnutritive sucking pressure and quantity of milk ingested during oral feedingResearch sufficient
Oral stimulation programs, skin-to-skin contact, and sensory–motor and oral–motor interventions to reduce length of hospital stayResearch sufficient
Tactile and multisensory interventions to improve nipple feedingPriority research area
Oral stimulation, early introduction of oral feeding, and Votja therapy to improve the transition from tube to oral feedingPriority research area
Cognitive Interventions
Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) interventionsUse of Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program to improve infant cognitive developmentPriority research area
NICU- and home-based interventionsMultisensory approach addressing auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular input in the hospital and at home until 2 mo corrected age to improve mental or motor performancePriority research area
Use of a parent education program that includes information on behavior, interaction with infants, and activities to promote developmentPriority research area
Early intervention program for preterm infants to improve cognitive outcomes in infancy and preschoolPriority research area
Interventions to promote joint attentionIntervention incorporating joint attention to improve maintenance of coordinated looks and increased acknowledgment of novel objectsPriority research area
Early intervention program started in the hospital and continued with home visits to improve joint attention and initiation of object requestsPriority research area
Discrete trial training and pivotal response training when addressing joint attention to improve social limitations, spontaneous speech, and play skillsPriority research area
Comparison of joint attention interventions and interventions using symbolic play and applied behavioral analysisPriority research area
Motor Performance
Developmental interventions for at-risk infantsCaregiver-delivered home program for infants updated at 1, 2, and 3 mo to improve motor performancePriority research area
Developmental motor interventions to improve motor outcomesPriority research area
5-wk parent education program that models appropriate motor developmentPriority research area
Interventions for children with or at risk for cerebral palsy (CP)Constraint induced movement therapy to improve motor performancePriority research area
Neurodevelopmental treatment to improve motor performancePriority research area
Child-focused and context-focused intervention to improve motor performancePriority research area
Conductive education to improve motor performancePriority research area
Visual–motor interventions for children with developmental delaysTherapist-led sensorimotor therapy to improve gross motor functional skillsPriority research area
Child-led sensorimotor therapy to improve fine motor skillsPriority research area
Occupational therapy for preschoolers to improve visual–motor and fine motor skills, manipulation, and motor accuracyPriority research area
Direct or indirect occupational therapy to improve visual–motor skillsPriority research area
Service Delivery in Early Childhood
SettingsInterventions at more than one setting (e.g., classroom and home) to improve performance outcomesPriority research area
Participation in a Head Start program at age 2 yr rather than 3 yr to reduce maternal depressionPriority research area
Longer duration of home-based behavioral treatment to improve outcomes in children with autism or pervasive developmental disorderPriority research area
Routine-based interventionsFamily-centered help giving that incorporates support to strengthen the family and improve satisfaction, parenting behavior, personal and family well-being, social support, and child behaviorPriority research area
Routines-based or contextualized interventions to improve affect and engagementPriority research area
Everyday learning opportunities to improve parenting competence, parental well-being, and parent judgment of child progressPriority research area
Interventions during family routines to extinguish target behaviors and improve generalization of skillsPriority research area
Family-centered service delivery to improve satisfaction and reduce family stressPriority research area
Parent trainingParenting programs to improve parent-based outcomes (e.g., parent stress, anxiety, depression)Research sufficient
Early Head Start parenting classes to improve cognitive outcomes in early childhoodPriority research area
Brief therapist-led parenting education to improve behavioral outcomes in young childrenPriority research area
Parent training to improve satisfaction and quality of lifePriority research area
Community-based parenting group to reduce child difficulty and conduct problemsPriority research area
Research Opportunities Table on Early Childhood: Birth Through 5 Years
Research Opportunities Table on Early Childhood: Birth Through 5 Years×
ThemeSpecific InterventionStrength of Evidence
Social–Emotional Functioning
Touch-based interventionsInfant massage to improve sleep and relaxation, reduce crying, and reduce hormones affecting stress (no cognitive or behavioral component)Research sufficient
Massage before bed to improve attention, reduce restless and impulse behavior, and decrease stereotypical behaviorsPriority research area
Kangaroo Care to promote social–emotional development, eye–hand coordination, and speechPriority research area
Relationship-based interventionsCaregiver-facilitated play to reduce anxiety in children and parents and to increase developmentally competent playPriority research area
Responsive teaching methods by parents to increase attention, persistence, interest, cooperation, initiation, joint attention, affect, and social–emotional functioningPriority research area
Interactive or play-based activitiesDiscrete trial combined with either semistructured play sessions or pivotal response training to improve structured playResearch sufficient
Discrete trial combined with either semistructured play session or pivotal response training to improve symbolic playPriority research area
Naturalistic interventionsMixed play groups (children with and without disabilities) to improve responsiveness to peers and improve total positive behavior for both groupsPriority research area
Instruction of preschool pairs in using a computer to increase active waiting, turn taking, and positive affectPriority research area
Visually scheduled and scripted instructor-guided play to improve dyad engagementPriority research area
Instruction-based interventionsModeling, play-based activities, rehearsal of social behaviors, and prompting to improve social behaviorsResearch sufficient
Direct teaching with video modeling and applied behavior analysis to improve social skillsResearch sufficient
Pivotal response training and environmental arrangement to prolong social interactionResearch sufficient
Social Stories to reduce inappropriate behaviors and increase appropriate behaviorsPriority research area
Therapist-selected toys and objectsSocial toys to promote cooperative play and positive social outcomesPriority research area
Mixed-level play groups for children with disabilities and peers with better play skills to improve social outcomesPriority research area
Feeding, Eating, and Swallowing
Behavioral-based interventionsBehavioral interventions to increase calorie intakePriority research area
Behavioral interventions to wean from tube feedingPriority research area
Parent-directed educational interventionsIndividualized behavioral feeding intervention to increase physical growth of infantsPriority research area
Parent education and parent-directed intervention to reduce maternal stressPriority research area
Behavioral interventions to increase food acceptance during mealtimesPriority research area
Parent education and parent-directed intervention to improve mealtime behaviors and reduce problem behaviorsPriority research area
Physiological interventionsOral stimulation programs to increase nonnutritive sucking pressure and quantity of milk ingested during oral feedingResearch sufficient
Oral stimulation programs, skin-to-skin contact, and sensory–motor and oral–motor interventions to reduce length of hospital stayResearch sufficient
Tactile and multisensory interventions to improve nipple feedingPriority research area
Oral stimulation, early introduction of oral feeding, and Votja therapy to improve the transition from tube to oral feedingPriority research area
Cognitive Interventions
Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) interventionsUse of Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program to improve infant cognitive developmentPriority research area
NICU- and home-based interventionsMultisensory approach addressing auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular input in the hospital and at home until 2 mo corrected age to improve mental or motor performancePriority research area
Use of a parent education program that includes information on behavior, interaction with infants, and activities to promote developmentPriority research area
Early intervention program for preterm infants to improve cognitive outcomes in infancy and preschoolPriority research area
Interventions to promote joint attentionIntervention incorporating joint attention to improve maintenance of coordinated looks and increased acknowledgment of novel objectsPriority research area
Early intervention program started in the hospital and continued with home visits to improve joint attention and initiation of object requestsPriority research area
Discrete trial training and pivotal response training when addressing joint attention to improve social limitations, spontaneous speech, and play skillsPriority research area
Comparison of joint attention interventions and interventions using symbolic play and applied behavioral analysisPriority research area
Motor Performance
Developmental interventions for at-risk infantsCaregiver-delivered home program for infants updated at 1, 2, and 3 mo to improve motor performancePriority research area
Developmental motor interventions to improve motor outcomesPriority research area
5-wk parent education program that models appropriate motor developmentPriority research area
Interventions for children with or at risk for cerebral palsy (CP)Constraint induced movement therapy to improve motor performancePriority research area
Neurodevelopmental treatment to improve motor performancePriority research area
Child-focused and context-focused intervention to improve motor performancePriority research area
Conductive education to improve motor performancePriority research area
Visual–motor interventions for children with developmental delaysTherapist-led sensorimotor therapy to improve gross motor functional skillsPriority research area
Child-led sensorimotor therapy to improve fine motor skillsPriority research area
Occupational therapy for preschoolers to improve visual–motor and fine motor skills, manipulation, and motor accuracyPriority research area
Direct or indirect occupational therapy to improve visual–motor skillsPriority research area
Service Delivery in Early Childhood
SettingsInterventions at more than one setting (e.g., classroom and home) to improve performance outcomesPriority research area
Participation in a Head Start program at age 2 yr rather than 3 yr to reduce maternal depressionPriority research area
Longer duration of home-based behavioral treatment to improve outcomes in children with autism or pervasive developmental disorderPriority research area
Routine-based interventionsFamily-centered help giving that incorporates support to strengthen the family and improve satisfaction, parenting behavior, personal and family well-being, social support, and child behaviorPriority research area
Routines-based or contextualized interventions to improve affect and engagementPriority research area
Everyday learning opportunities to improve parenting competence, parental well-being, and parent judgment of child progressPriority research area
Interventions during family routines to extinguish target behaviors and improve generalization of skillsPriority research area
Family-centered service delivery to improve satisfaction and reduce family stressPriority research area
Parent trainingParenting programs to improve parent-based outcomes (e.g., parent stress, anxiety, depression)Research sufficient
Early Head Start parenting classes to improve cognitive outcomes in early childhoodPriority research area
Brief therapist-led parenting education to improve behavioral outcomes in young childrenPriority research area
Parent training to improve satisfaction and quality of lifePriority research area
Community-based parenting group to reduce child difficulty and conduct problemsPriority research area
×