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Research Article  |   September 2002
Comparisons Among Tools, Surface Orientation, and Pencil Grasp for Children 23 Months of Age
Author Affiliations
  • Janet E. Yakimishyn, MSc, OT(C), is Occupational Therapist, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. (Mailing address: 1121 San Saba Drive, Carrollton, Texas, 75007; janety@canada.com)
  • Joyce Magill-Evans, PhD, is Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Article Information
Occupational Therapy and Children
Research Article   |   September 2002
Comparisons Among Tools, Surface Orientation, and Pencil Grasp for Children 23 Months of Age
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, September/October 2002, Vol. 56, 564-572. doi:10.5014/ajot.56.5.564
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, September/October 2002, Vol. 56, 564-572. doi:10.5014/ajot.56.5.564
Abstract

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to determine whether writing tool type and angle of writing surface affect grasp.

METHOD. Fifty-one children 23 to 24 months of age who were typically developing drew with a primarymarker, colored pencil, and small piece of crayon on a table and an easel. The marker and pencil were presented pointing left, right, and toward the child. The order of writing tool presentation was counterbalanced. Grasps were scored with a 5-point rating system and analyzed with dependent t tests.

RESULTS. Children used a more mature grasp when drawing with a piece of crayon than with a pencil. No difference in grasp maturity was found when using a pencil compared with a marker. A more mature grasp when drawing on the easel compared with the table was used with the crayon but not with the marker or pencil.

CONCLUSION. Results imply that a short writing tool combined with a vertical surface can influence the grasp of young children.