Elizabeth A. Murray, Sharon A. Cermak, Valerie O’Brien; The Relationship Between Form and Space Perception, Constructional Abilities, and Clumsiness in Children. Am J Occup Ther 1990;44(7):623-628. doi: 10.5014/ajot.44.7.623.
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The Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) (Ayres, 1989) were administered to 21 children with learning disabilities and 18 children without learning disabilities, aged 5 to 8 years. The children with learning disabilities were divided into two groups, clumsy and nonclumsy, on the basis of their scores on the Test of Motor Impairment (Stott, Moyes, & Henderson, 1984). It was hypothesized that the learning-disabled children in the clumsy group would score significantly lower than the learning-disabled children in the nonclumsy group on the six SIPT subtests that measure form and space perception and visual construction and that the nonclumsy learning-disabled children, in turn, would score significantly lower than the non-learning-disabled children. It was further hypothesized that there would be a significant correlation between the degree of clumsiness and the degree of visual perceptual and constructional deficits. An analysis of the data indicated that both groups of learning-disabled children scored lower than the non-learning-disabled children on four of the six SIPT subtests. The clumsy and nonclumsy children with learning disabilities, however, differed from each other on only two subtests. The degree of clumsiness correlated significantly with three of the six subtests. The results are discussed in terms of variations in perceptual and motor skills related to subtypes of learning disabilities.
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