Research Article  |   September 2014
Test of Ideational Praxis (TIP): Preliminary Findings and Interrater and Test–Retest Reliability With Preschoolers
Author Affiliations
  • Shelly J. Lane, PhD, OTR, FAOTA, is Professor, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Allied Health Professions, Department of Occupational Therapy, 730 East Broad Street, Suite 2050, Richmond, VA 23219; sjlane@vcu.edu
  • Carole K. Ivey, PhD, OTR/L, is Assistant Professor, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA
  • Teresa A. May-Benson, ScD, OTR/L, FAOTA, is Executive Director, SPIRAL Foundation, Newton, MA
Article Information
Assessment Development and Testing / Neurologic Conditions / Pediatric Evaluation and Intervention / School-Based Practice / Sensory Integration and Processing / Special Issue: Sensory Integration Measurement
Research Article   |   September 2014
Test of Ideational Praxis (TIP): Preliminary Findings and Interrater and Test–Retest Reliability With Preschoolers
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, September/October 2014, Vol. 68, 555-561. doi:10.5014/ajot.2014.012542
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, September/October 2014, Vol. 68, 555-561. doi:10.5014/ajot.2014.012542
Abstract

Praxis is the ability of the brain to develop an idea for action and plan, organize, and execute unfamiliar motor actions. It enables purposeful interaction with people and things in the environment. Ideation is central to praxis but has been little researched. This study investigated the reliability of the Test of Ideational Praxis (TIP) and examined ideational praxis in typical preschoolers. TIP performance for 78 preschoolers ages 3, 4, and 5 yr was videotaped and scored by two trained raters. The TIP has strong interrater reliability, supporting earlier findings. Further, we documented test–retest stability over 2 wk. As a group, preschoolers identified 10.6 affordances (ideas) for action on the TIP; no age differences were found. Training is required for accurate scoring of the TIP; following training, clinicians and researchers may find the TIP a useful tool to screen motor ideational abilities in young children.