Open Access
Research Article  |   September 2014
Research Opportunities in the Area of Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention for Children and Youth
Article Information
Evidence-Based Practice / Mental Health / Pediatric Evaluation and Intervention / Research Opportunities
Research Article   |   September 2014
Research Opportunities in the Area of Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention for Children and Youth
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, September/October 2014, Vol. 68, 610-612. doi:10.5014/ajot.2014.685001
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, September/October 2014, Vol. 68, 610-612. doi:10.5014/ajot.2014.685001
Abstract

The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) Evidence-Based Practice Project has developed a table summarizing the research opportunities on mental health promotion, prevention, and intervention for children and youth. The table provides an overview of the state of current available evidence on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice and is based on the systematic reviews from AOTA’s Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines Series. Researchers, students, and clinicians can use this information in developing innovative research to answer important questions within the occupational therapy field.

Planning a research project requires consideration of many factors. Level of interest and knowledge in a specific area, access to appropriate populations of participants, support of mentors and other researchers, and funding availability all help determine the focus of a future project. An additional component to be considered is whether adequate, up-to-date research has already been completed on a topic; if sufficient evidence is available in a given core area, this area might not be the best choice for another research project.
The best research topic may be one in which either little research has been done or the research to date is insufficient, inconclusive, or mixed. In addition, when research conducted to date provides a low level of evidence and is of limited quality, additional high-quality research in the area is needed.
The “Research Opportunities Table on Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention for Children and Youth” provides an overview of the state of current available evidence on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice. The table is based on the systematic reviews from the Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines Series developed by the American Occupational Therapy Association's Evidence-Based Practice Project. The table lists specific interventions and indicates either that the evidence is sufficient to support the intervention or that moderate, mixed, or few studies support the intervention and therefore it is a priority research area. Please refer to the Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention for Children and Youth (Bazyk & Arbesman, 2013) and the American Journal of Occupational Therapy article “Systematic Review of Occupational Therapy and Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention for Children and Youth” (Arbesman, Bazyk, & Nochajski, 2013) for more information on the topic area and the systematic review process.
This table also is posted online for researchers to use to inform the occupational therapy community about their work. The table is linked to Google Drive and offers a place for researchers to include information on recently completed and ongoing research. It is hoped that this information will make the research planning process easier, minimize duplication of research efforts, and stimulate discussions among researchers with similar interests, which can then facilitate the creation of research networks and multisite studies. Researchers, students, and clinicians can use this information in developing innovative research to answer important questions within the occupational therapy field. To add current or ongoing research to the table, visit http://www.aota.org/researchopportunitiestables.
Researchers are also encouraged to enter their projects into AOTA’s Researcher Database at http://myaota.aota.org/research/. This database provides AOTA with information such as relevant clinical settings and populations, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health level (World Health Organization, 2001), funder (if any), and key words to help guide research advocacy and policy initiatives.
Research Opportunities Table on Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention for Children and Youth
Research Opportunities Table on Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention for Children and Youth×
ThemeSpecific InterventionStrength of Evidence
Tier I: Universal mental health promotion and prevention services
Social skillsWhole-school and emotional learning programs to improve social and emotional skillsResearch sufficient
After-school programs incorporating a goal of social skills to improve social behaviors and reduce problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
School-based bullying prevention programs to prevent bullying and victimizationResearch sufficient
Problem-solving skills to improve coping behaviorResearch sufficient
Problem-solving skills to improve peer interaction in preschool-age childrenPriority research area
Parent education to improve child compliancePriority research area
Parent education as part of a multicomponent school program to prevent aggressive behaviors in at-risk kindergartnersPriority research area
Health promotionSchool-based stress management programs for Grades 3–8 to reduce stress and improve coping skillsResearch sufficient
Mental health literacy programs for adolescents to improve knowledge and attitudes about mental illnessPriority research area
Back education program for elementary school children to improve back posture while lifting objects and carrying backpacksPriority research area
Yoga to improve physical fitness and cardiorespiratory healthPriority research area
Yoga to reduce negative behaviors in response to stressPriority research area
School-based programs to improve self-efficacyPriority research area
Play, recreation, and leisureParticipation in performing arts programs to improve social interaction and social skillsResearch sufficient
Use of recreation facilitators in after-school programs to increase participation in physical activityPriority research area
Participation in performing arts programs to reduce emotional problemsPriority research area
Team-building activities during physical education to improve self-conceptPriority research area
Teaching of cooperation skills to elementary school children to increase cooperation and reduce competitive behaviorsPriority research area
Skill-based activity groups to reduce involvement with the legal systemPriority research area
Skill-based activity groups to improve behavioral outcomesPriority research area
Participation in performing arts programs to improve social interaction and social skillsPriority research area
Tier II: Targeted mental health services
Social skillsSocial skills training for disliked or rejected children and adolescents to improve social interaction, peer acceptance, and social standingResearch sufficient
Social skills programming for at-risk, aggressive, or antisocial children and adolescents to improve attention to tasks, peer interaction, and prosocial behaviors and to reduce aggressive, delinquent, and antisocial behaviorsResearch sufficient
Social skills programming for children and adolescents with learning disabilities and ADHD to improve communication and social and functional skills and reduce problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
Social and life skills programs for children with intellectual impairments and developmental delays to improve life skills, conversation turn taking, initiation of social interaction, self-management, and compliance and decrease problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
Parenting programs for teenage mothers and their children to improve mother–infant interaction and parental attitudes and knowledge, maternal mealtime communication, self-confidence, and identityResearch sufficient
Health promotionYoga for adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome to reduce gastrointestinal symptomsResearch sufficient
A program of yoga, massage, and relaxation for children with behavioral difficulties to improve self-confidence and increase communicationPriority research area
A guided imagery program combined with coping strategies for withdrawn or rejected first graders to increase socializationPriority research area
A multicomponent training program for children and adolescents with asthma to improve knowledge of asthma and internal locus of control and to decrease days off of schoolPriority research area
Yoga for youth with Type 2 diabetes to increase weight loss and self-esteemPriority research area
An activity-based group intervention for siblings of children with cancer to improve cancer-related knowledge, mood, and communication skillsPriority research area
Play, recreation, and leisurePlay groups for abused or neglected children to improve play skills, self-esteem, and positive feelings and to reduce solitary play and behavior problemsResearch sufficient
Play and music for children with intellectual and language impairments to improve social skills and attention to peersResearch sufficient
Recreation, leisure, and physical education programs for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities to improve social interactionResearch sufficient
Structured recreation and activity program for children with extreme shyness to increase extraversion and decrease timidityPriority research area
Creative activities for children and early adolescents with peer difficulty to improve self-confidence in managing peer conflictPriority research area
Activity-based summer program for children with cleft lip and palate to improve social interactionPriority research area
Activity-based after-school program for children with identified behavior problems to improve self-conceptPriority research area
Tier III: Intensive mental health services
Social skillsSocial skills training for children and adolescents with ASD to improve social behavior, social competence, and self-managementResearch sufficient
LEGO® social skills group for children with ASD to reduce social difficulties and improve social interactionResearch sufficient
Social skills interventions for children and youth with diagnosed mental illness or serious behavior disorder to improve social behaviorsResearch sufficient
Friendship skills group for children with ASD to improve social skillsPriority research area
Cognitive–behavioral therapy for children with ASD to reduce parent-reported anxietyPriority research area
Social communication intervention that includes joint attention for preschoolers with autism to improve language and adaptive behaviorPriority research area
Cognitive–behavioral therapy and activities and games for children with ASD to improve assertive behavior and reduce hyperactivity and problem behaviorsPriority research area
Video modeling or direct group instruction in social skills for children and adolescents with ASD to improve prosocial behaviors and social interactionsPriority research area
Self-management strategies, change in instructional content, and differential reinforcement for children with ASD to reduce challenging behaviorsPriority research area
Play, recreation, and leisureMusic-related activities (singing, listening to music, playing an instrument) for children with autism to improve nonverbal and verbal communication skills and reduce problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
Wilderness experiences for adolescents with behavior disorders to improve cooperative behaviorsPriority research area
Play activities for school-age children with autism to increase play and cooperative behaviorsPriority research area
Use of a program to identify life mission (e.g., Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy program) for adolescents with emotional and behavioral difficulties to improve participation in occupationsPriority research area
Table Footer NoteNote. ADHD = attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; ASD = autism spectrum disorder.
Note. ADHD = attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; ASD = autism spectrum disorder.×
Research Opportunities Table on Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention for Children and Youth
Research Opportunities Table on Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention for Children and Youth×
ThemeSpecific InterventionStrength of Evidence
Tier I: Universal mental health promotion and prevention services
Social skillsWhole-school and emotional learning programs to improve social and emotional skillsResearch sufficient
After-school programs incorporating a goal of social skills to improve social behaviors and reduce problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
School-based bullying prevention programs to prevent bullying and victimizationResearch sufficient
Problem-solving skills to improve coping behaviorResearch sufficient
Problem-solving skills to improve peer interaction in preschool-age childrenPriority research area
Parent education to improve child compliancePriority research area
Parent education as part of a multicomponent school program to prevent aggressive behaviors in at-risk kindergartnersPriority research area
Health promotionSchool-based stress management programs for Grades 3–8 to reduce stress and improve coping skillsResearch sufficient
Mental health literacy programs for adolescents to improve knowledge and attitudes about mental illnessPriority research area
Back education program for elementary school children to improve back posture while lifting objects and carrying backpacksPriority research area
Yoga to improve physical fitness and cardiorespiratory healthPriority research area
Yoga to reduce negative behaviors in response to stressPriority research area
School-based programs to improve self-efficacyPriority research area
Play, recreation, and leisureParticipation in performing arts programs to improve social interaction and social skillsResearch sufficient
Use of recreation facilitators in after-school programs to increase participation in physical activityPriority research area
Participation in performing arts programs to reduce emotional problemsPriority research area
Team-building activities during physical education to improve self-conceptPriority research area
Teaching of cooperation skills to elementary school children to increase cooperation and reduce competitive behaviorsPriority research area
Skill-based activity groups to reduce involvement with the legal systemPriority research area
Skill-based activity groups to improve behavioral outcomesPriority research area
Participation in performing arts programs to improve social interaction and social skillsPriority research area
Tier II: Targeted mental health services
Social skillsSocial skills training for disliked or rejected children and adolescents to improve social interaction, peer acceptance, and social standingResearch sufficient
Social skills programming for at-risk, aggressive, or antisocial children and adolescents to improve attention to tasks, peer interaction, and prosocial behaviors and to reduce aggressive, delinquent, and antisocial behaviorsResearch sufficient
Social skills programming for children and adolescents with learning disabilities and ADHD to improve communication and social and functional skills and reduce problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
Social and life skills programs for children with intellectual impairments and developmental delays to improve life skills, conversation turn taking, initiation of social interaction, self-management, and compliance and decrease problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
Parenting programs for teenage mothers and their children to improve mother–infant interaction and parental attitudes and knowledge, maternal mealtime communication, self-confidence, and identityResearch sufficient
Health promotionYoga for adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome to reduce gastrointestinal symptomsResearch sufficient
A program of yoga, massage, and relaxation for children with behavioral difficulties to improve self-confidence and increase communicationPriority research area
A guided imagery program combined with coping strategies for withdrawn or rejected first graders to increase socializationPriority research area
A multicomponent training program for children and adolescents with asthma to improve knowledge of asthma and internal locus of control and to decrease days off of schoolPriority research area
Yoga for youth with Type 2 diabetes to increase weight loss and self-esteemPriority research area
An activity-based group intervention for siblings of children with cancer to improve cancer-related knowledge, mood, and communication skillsPriority research area
Play, recreation, and leisurePlay groups for abused or neglected children to improve play skills, self-esteem, and positive feelings and to reduce solitary play and behavior problemsResearch sufficient
Play and music for children with intellectual and language impairments to improve social skills and attention to peersResearch sufficient
Recreation, leisure, and physical education programs for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities to improve social interactionResearch sufficient
Structured recreation and activity program for children with extreme shyness to increase extraversion and decrease timidityPriority research area
Creative activities for children and early adolescents with peer difficulty to improve self-confidence in managing peer conflictPriority research area
Activity-based summer program for children with cleft lip and palate to improve social interactionPriority research area
Activity-based after-school program for children with identified behavior problems to improve self-conceptPriority research area
Tier III: Intensive mental health services
Social skillsSocial skills training for children and adolescents with ASD to improve social behavior, social competence, and self-managementResearch sufficient
LEGO® social skills group for children with ASD to reduce social difficulties and improve social interactionResearch sufficient
Social skills interventions for children and youth with diagnosed mental illness or serious behavior disorder to improve social behaviorsResearch sufficient
Friendship skills group for children with ASD to improve social skillsPriority research area
Cognitive–behavioral therapy for children with ASD to reduce parent-reported anxietyPriority research area
Social communication intervention that includes joint attention for preschoolers with autism to improve language and adaptive behaviorPriority research area
Cognitive–behavioral therapy and activities and games for children with ASD to improve assertive behavior and reduce hyperactivity and problem behaviorsPriority research area
Video modeling or direct group instruction in social skills for children and adolescents with ASD to improve prosocial behaviors and social interactionsPriority research area
Self-management strategies, change in instructional content, and differential reinforcement for children with ASD to reduce challenging behaviorsPriority research area
Play, recreation, and leisureMusic-related activities (singing, listening to music, playing an instrument) for children with autism to improve nonverbal and verbal communication skills and reduce problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
Wilderness experiences for adolescents with behavior disorders to improve cooperative behaviorsPriority research area
Play activities for school-age children with autism to increase play and cooperative behaviorsPriority research area
Use of a program to identify life mission (e.g., Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy program) for adolescents with emotional and behavioral difficulties to improve participation in occupationsPriority research area
Table Footer NoteNote. ADHD = attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; ASD = autism spectrum disorder.
Note. ADHD = attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; ASD = autism spectrum disorder.×
×
Acknowledgments
AOTA acknowledges the work of Matthew Bernardo, Stacia Matthews, and Melissa Stutzbach, who participated in the development of the Research Opportunities tables while at the American Occupational Therapy Association in Bethesda, MD. This work is based on the American Journal of Occupational Therapy article “Systematic Review of Occupational Therapy and Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention for Children and Youth” (Arbesman, Bazyk, & Nochajski, 2013) and the Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention for Children and Youth (Bazyk & Arbesman, 2013), all from the AOTA Evidence-Based Practice Project.
References
Arbesman, M., Bazyk, S., & Nochajski, S. M. (2013). Systematic review of occupational therapy and mental health promotion, prevention, and intervention for children and youth. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67, e120–e130. http://dx/doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2013.008359 [Article] [PubMed]
Arbesman, M., Bazyk, S., & Nochajski, S. M. (2013). Systematic review of occupational therapy and mental health promotion, prevention, and intervention for children and youth. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67, e120–e130. http://dx/doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2013.008359 [Article] [PubMed]×
Bazyk, S., & Arbesman, M. (2013). Occupational therapy practice guidelines for mental health promotion, prevention, and intervention for children and youth. Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press.
Bazyk, S., & Arbesman, M. (2013). Occupational therapy practice guidelines for mental health promotion, prevention, and intervention for children and youth. Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press.×
World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health. Geneva: Author.
World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health. Geneva: Author.×
Research Opportunities Table on Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention for Children and Youth
Research Opportunities Table on Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention for Children and Youth×
ThemeSpecific InterventionStrength of Evidence
Tier I: Universal mental health promotion and prevention services
Social skillsWhole-school and emotional learning programs to improve social and emotional skillsResearch sufficient
After-school programs incorporating a goal of social skills to improve social behaviors and reduce problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
School-based bullying prevention programs to prevent bullying and victimizationResearch sufficient
Problem-solving skills to improve coping behaviorResearch sufficient
Problem-solving skills to improve peer interaction in preschool-age childrenPriority research area
Parent education to improve child compliancePriority research area
Parent education as part of a multicomponent school program to prevent aggressive behaviors in at-risk kindergartnersPriority research area
Health promotionSchool-based stress management programs for Grades 3–8 to reduce stress and improve coping skillsResearch sufficient
Mental health literacy programs for adolescents to improve knowledge and attitudes about mental illnessPriority research area
Back education program for elementary school children to improve back posture while lifting objects and carrying backpacksPriority research area
Yoga to improve physical fitness and cardiorespiratory healthPriority research area
Yoga to reduce negative behaviors in response to stressPriority research area
School-based programs to improve self-efficacyPriority research area
Play, recreation, and leisureParticipation in performing arts programs to improve social interaction and social skillsResearch sufficient
Use of recreation facilitators in after-school programs to increase participation in physical activityPriority research area
Participation in performing arts programs to reduce emotional problemsPriority research area
Team-building activities during physical education to improve self-conceptPriority research area
Teaching of cooperation skills to elementary school children to increase cooperation and reduce competitive behaviorsPriority research area
Skill-based activity groups to reduce involvement with the legal systemPriority research area
Skill-based activity groups to improve behavioral outcomesPriority research area
Participation in performing arts programs to improve social interaction and social skillsPriority research area
Tier II: Targeted mental health services
Social skillsSocial skills training for disliked or rejected children and adolescents to improve social interaction, peer acceptance, and social standingResearch sufficient
Social skills programming for at-risk, aggressive, or antisocial children and adolescents to improve attention to tasks, peer interaction, and prosocial behaviors and to reduce aggressive, delinquent, and antisocial behaviorsResearch sufficient
Social skills programming for children and adolescents with learning disabilities and ADHD to improve communication and social and functional skills and reduce problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
Social and life skills programs for children with intellectual impairments and developmental delays to improve life skills, conversation turn taking, initiation of social interaction, self-management, and compliance and decrease problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
Parenting programs for teenage mothers and their children to improve mother–infant interaction and parental attitudes and knowledge, maternal mealtime communication, self-confidence, and identityResearch sufficient
Health promotionYoga for adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome to reduce gastrointestinal symptomsResearch sufficient
A program of yoga, massage, and relaxation for children with behavioral difficulties to improve self-confidence and increase communicationPriority research area
A guided imagery program combined with coping strategies for withdrawn or rejected first graders to increase socializationPriority research area
A multicomponent training program for children and adolescents with asthma to improve knowledge of asthma and internal locus of control and to decrease days off of schoolPriority research area
Yoga for youth with Type 2 diabetes to increase weight loss and self-esteemPriority research area
An activity-based group intervention for siblings of children with cancer to improve cancer-related knowledge, mood, and communication skillsPriority research area
Play, recreation, and leisurePlay groups for abused or neglected children to improve play skills, self-esteem, and positive feelings and to reduce solitary play and behavior problemsResearch sufficient
Play and music for children with intellectual and language impairments to improve social skills and attention to peersResearch sufficient
Recreation, leisure, and physical education programs for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities to improve social interactionResearch sufficient
Structured recreation and activity program for children with extreme shyness to increase extraversion and decrease timidityPriority research area
Creative activities for children and early adolescents with peer difficulty to improve self-confidence in managing peer conflictPriority research area
Activity-based summer program for children with cleft lip and palate to improve social interactionPriority research area
Activity-based after-school program for children with identified behavior problems to improve self-conceptPriority research area
Tier III: Intensive mental health services
Social skillsSocial skills training for children and adolescents with ASD to improve social behavior, social competence, and self-managementResearch sufficient
LEGO® social skills group for children with ASD to reduce social difficulties and improve social interactionResearch sufficient
Social skills interventions for children and youth with diagnosed mental illness or serious behavior disorder to improve social behaviorsResearch sufficient
Friendship skills group for children with ASD to improve social skillsPriority research area
Cognitive–behavioral therapy for children with ASD to reduce parent-reported anxietyPriority research area
Social communication intervention that includes joint attention for preschoolers with autism to improve language and adaptive behaviorPriority research area
Cognitive–behavioral therapy and activities and games for children with ASD to improve assertive behavior and reduce hyperactivity and problem behaviorsPriority research area
Video modeling or direct group instruction in social skills for children and adolescents with ASD to improve prosocial behaviors and social interactionsPriority research area
Self-management strategies, change in instructional content, and differential reinforcement for children with ASD to reduce challenging behaviorsPriority research area
Play, recreation, and leisureMusic-related activities (singing, listening to music, playing an instrument) for children with autism to improve nonverbal and verbal communication skills and reduce problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
Wilderness experiences for adolescents with behavior disorders to improve cooperative behaviorsPriority research area
Play activities for school-age children with autism to increase play and cooperative behaviorsPriority research area
Use of a program to identify life mission (e.g., Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy program) for adolescents with emotional and behavioral difficulties to improve participation in occupationsPriority research area
Table Footer NoteNote. ADHD = attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; ASD = autism spectrum disorder.
Note. ADHD = attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; ASD = autism spectrum disorder.×
Research Opportunities Table on Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention for Children and Youth
Research Opportunities Table on Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention for Children and Youth×
ThemeSpecific InterventionStrength of Evidence
Tier I: Universal mental health promotion and prevention services
Social skillsWhole-school and emotional learning programs to improve social and emotional skillsResearch sufficient
After-school programs incorporating a goal of social skills to improve social behaviors and reduce problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
School-based bullying prevention programs to prevent bullying and victimizationResearch sufficient
Problem-solving skills to improve coping behaviorResearch sufficient
Problem-solving skills to improve peer interaction in preschool-age childrenPriority research area
Parent education to improve child compliancePriority research area
Parent education as part of a multicomponent school program to prevent aggressive behaviors in at-risk kindergartnersPriority research area
Health promotionSchool-based stress management programs for Grades 3–8 to reduce stress and improve coping skillsResearch sufficient
Mental health literacy programs for adolescents to improve knowledge and attitudes about mental illnessPriority research area
Back education program for elementary school children to improve back posture while lifting objects and carrying backpacksPriority research area
Yoga to improve physical fitness and cardiorespiratory healthPriority research area
Yoga to reduce negative behaviors in response to stressPriority research area
School-based programs to improve self-efficacyPriority research area
Play, recreation, and leisureParticipation in performing arts programs to improve social interaction and social skillsResearch sufficient
Use of recreation facilitators in after-school programs to increase participation in physical activityPriority research area
Participation in performing arts programs to reduce emotional problemsPriority research area
Team-building activities during physical education to improve self-conceptPriority research area
Teaching of cooperation skills to elementary school children to increase cooperation and reduce competitive behaviorsPriority research area
Skill-based activity groups to reduce involvement with the legal systemPriority research area
Skill-based activity groups to improve behavioral outcomesPriority research area
Participation in performing arts programs to improve social interaction and social skillsPriority research area
Tier II: Targeted mental health services
Social skillsSocial skills training for disliked or rejected children and adolescents to improve social interaction, peer acceptance, and social standingResearch sufficient
Social skills programming for at-risk, aggressive, or antisocial children and adolescents to improve attention to tasks, peer interaction, and prosocial behaviors and to reduce aggressive, delinquent, and antisocial behaviorsResearch sufficient
Social skills programming for children and adolescents with learning disabilities and ADHD to improve communication and social and functional skills and reduce problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
Social and life skills programs for children with intellectual impairments and developmental delays to improve life skills, conversation turn taking, initiation of social interaction, self-management, and compliance and decrease problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
Parenting programs for teenage mothers and their children to improve mother–infant interaction and parental attitudes and knowledge, maternal mealtime communication, self-confidence, and identityResearch sufficient
Health promotionYoga for adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome to reduce gastrointestinal symptomsResearch sufficient
A program of yoga, massage, and relaxation for children with behavioral difficulties to improve self-confidence and increase communicationPriority research area
A guided imagery program combined with coping strategies for withdrawn or rejected first graders to increase socializationPriority research area
A multicomponent training program for children and adolescents with asthma to improve knowledge of asthma and internal locus of control and to decrease days off of schoolPriority research area
Yoga for youth with Type 2 diabetes to increase weight loss and self-esteemPriority research area
An activity-based group intervention for siblings of children with cancer to improve cancer-related knowledge, mood, and communication skillsPriority research area
Play, recreation, and leisurePlay groups for abused or neglected children to improve play skills, self-esteem, and positive feelings and to reduce solitary play and behavior problemsResearch sufficient
Play and music for children with intellectual and language impairments to improve social skills and attention to peersResearch sufficient
Recreation, leisure, and physical education programs for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities to improve social interactionResearch sufficient
Structured recreation and activity program for children with extreme shyness to increase extraversion and decrease timidityPriority research area
Creative activities for children and early adolescents with peer difficulty to improve self-confidence in managing peer conflictPriority research area
Activity-based summer program for children with cleft lip and palate to improve social interactionPriority research area
Activity-based after-school program for children with identified behavior problems to improve self-conceptPriority research area
Tier III: Intensive mental health services
Social skillsSocial skills training for children and adolescents with ASD to improve social behavior, social competence, and self-managementResearch sufficient
LEGO® social skills group for children with ASD to reduce social difficulties and improve social interactionResearch sufficient
Social skills interventions for children and youth with diagnosed mental illness or serious behavior disorder to improve social behaviorsResearch sufficient
Friendship skills group for children with ASD to improve social skillsPriority research area
Cognitive–behavioral therapy for children with ASD to reduce parent-reported anxietyPriority research area
Social communication intervention that includes joint attention for preschoolers with autism to improve language and adaptive behaviorPriority research area
Cognitive–behavioral therapy and activities and games for children with ASD to improve assertive behavior and reduce hyperactivity and problem behaviorsPriority research area
Video modeling or direct group instruction in social skills for children and adolescents with ASD to improve prosocial behaviors and social interactionsPriority research area
Self-management strategies, change in instructional content, and differential reinforcement for children with ASD to reduce challenging behaviorsPriority research area
Play, recreation, and leisureMusic-related activities (singing, listening to music, playing an instrument) for children with autism to improve nonverbal and verbal communication skills and reduce problem behaviorsResearch sufficient
Wilderness experiences for adolescents with behavior disorders to improve cooperative behaviorsPriority research area
Play activities for school-age children with autism to increase play and cooperative behaviorsPriority research area
Use of a program to identify life mission (e.g., Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy program) for adolescents with emotional and behavioral difficulties to improve participation in occupationsPriority research area
Table Footer NoteNote. ADHD = attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; ASD = autism spectrum disorder.
Note. ADHD = attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; ASD = autism spectrum disorder.×
×