Research Article  |   April 2015
Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire for Children (HPSQ–C): Development, Reliability, and Validity
Author Affiliations
  • Sara Rosenblum, PhD, is Associate Professor and Head, Laboratory of Complex Human Activity and Participation (CHAP), Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel; rosens@research.haifa.ac.il
  • Liat Gafni-Lachter, MSc, is Assistant Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Health and Human Services, Saginaw Valley State University, University Center, MI
Article Information
Pediatric Evaluation and Intervention / School-Based Practice / Children and Youth
Research Article   |   April 2015
Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire for Children (HPSQ–C): Development, Reliability, and Validity
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, April 2015, Vol. 69, 6903220030p1-6903220030p9. doi:10.5014/ajot.2015.014761
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, April 2015, Vol. 69, 6903220030p1-6903220030p9. doi:10.5014/ajot.2015.014761
Abstract

OBJECTIVE. To adapt the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ), previously designated for adults, into a children’s self-report version (the HPSQ for Children, or HPSQ–C) and to examine its reliability and validity.

METHOD. Participants included 230 children ages 7–14 yr from regular schools in Israel. The questionnaire’s content validity, internal consistency, and concurrent and construct validity were assessed.

RESULTS. The tool demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .77). We found a significant moderate correlation between final HPSQ–C scores and the HPSQ, r = .51, p < .001, establishing the HPSQ–C’s concurrent validity. Construct validity was also confirmed. Results demonstrated that the HPSQ–C significantly distinguished between children with and without handwriting deficiencies on the basis of measures of handwriting product (Hebrew Handwriting Evaluation) and handwriting process (Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool).

CONCLUSION. The HPSQ–C is suitable for identification of handwriting deficiency among school-aged children and is appropriate for varied academic and clinical uses.