Open Access
Research Article  |   November 2015
Research Opportunities in the Area of Adults With Stroke
Article Information
Evidence-Based Practice / Neurologic Conditions / Stroke / Research Opportunities
Research Article   |   November 2015
Research Opportunities in the Area of Adults With Stroke
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, November 2015, Vol. 70, 7001400010p1-7001400010p3. doi:10.5014/ajot.2016.701003
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, November 2015, Vol. 70, 7001400010p1-7001400010p3. doi:10.5014/ajot.2016.701003
Abstract

The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) Evidence-Based Practice Project has developed a table summarizing the research opportunities on adults with stroke. The table provides an overview of the state of current available evidence on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice and is based on the systematic reviews from the AOTA Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines Series. Researchers, students, and clinicians can use this information in developing innovative research to answer important questions within the occupational therapy field.

Planning a research project requires consideration of many factors. Level of interest and knowledge in a specific area, access to appropriate populations of participants, support of mentors and other researchers, and funding availability all help determine the focus of a future project. An additional component to be considered is whether adequate, up-to-date research has already been completed on a topic. If sufficient evidence is available in a given core area, this area might not be the best choice for another research project.
The best research topic may be one in which either little research has been done or the research to date is insufficient, inconclusive, or mixed. In addition, when research conducted to date provides a low level of evidence and is of limited quality, additional high-quality research in the area is needed.
The “Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Stoke” provides an overview of the state of current available evidence on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice. The table is based on the systematic reviews from the American Occupational Therapy Association's (AOTA's) Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines Series. The table lists specific interventions and indicates either that the evidence is strong to support the intervention or that moderate, mixed, or few studies support the intervention and therefore it is a priority area for future research. Please refer to Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Adults With Stroke (Wolf & Nilsen, 2015) and the January/February 2015 issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (Gillen, 2015) for more information on the topic area and the systematic review process.
This table also is posted online for researchers to use to inform the occupational therapy community about their work. The table is linked to Google Drive and offers a place for researchers to include information on interest in initiating research, describe recently completed and ongoing research, and share clinical data. It is hoped that this information will make the research planning process easier, minimize duplication of research efforts, and stimulate discussions among researchers with similar interests, which can then facilitate the creation of research networks and multisite studies. Researchers, students, and clinicians can use this information in developing innovative research to answer important questions within the occupational therapy field. To add current or ongoing research to the table, visit http://www.aota.org/researchopportunitiestables.
Researchers are also encouraged to enter their projects into AOTA’s Researcher Database at http://myaota.aota.org/research/. This database provides AOTA with information such as relevant clinical settings and populations; International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health level (World Health Organization, 2001); funder (if any); and key words to help guide research advocacy and policy initiatives.
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Stroke
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Stroke×
CategorySpecific InterventionStrength of Evidence
Interventions to improve occupational performance of people with cognitive impairmentsVisual scanning training to improve performanceStrong evidence
Cognitive strategy training to improve performance on trained and untrained tasksArea for future research
Strategy training for people with memory deficitsArea for future research
Computerized memory programs to improve memory performance and occupational performanceArea for future research
Time pressure management to improve speed in daily task performance for people with mental slownessArea for future research
Compensatory training interventions to improve occupational performance in people with visual dysfunctionArea for future research
Individualized home rehabilitation program to improve cognitive functionArea for future research
Prism adaptation to enhance functional measures (including wheelchair mobility) and nonfunctional measures of unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Mirror therapy to improve occupational performance in people with unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Right half-field eye patching to improve occupational performance in people with unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Spatial cueing to improve wheelchair use for those with unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Interventions to improve occupational performance of people with motor impairmentsRepetitive task practice to improve UE function, balance and mobility, and activity and participationStrong evidence
CIMT or mCIMT to improve UE function and activity and participationStrong evidence
Strengthening and exercise to improve UE function, balance and mobility, and activity and participationStrong evidence
Bilateral training to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
VR to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Mental practice to improve UE function, balance and mobility, and activity and participationArea for future research
Mirror therapy to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Action observation to improve UE functionArea for future research
Electrical stimulation to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Telerehabilitation to augment the delivery of functionally based training programsArea for future research
Robotics to improve UE function or activity and participationArea for future research
Shoulder supports to improve balance and mobilityArea for future research
Positioning devices, orthoses, and stretching to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Botulinum toxin A combined with therapy interventions to improve UE function or activity and participationArea for future research
Brain stimulation in addition to therapy to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Interventions to improve occupational performance of people with psychosocial or emotional impairmentsBehavioral therapy to reduce depression and improve other psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Multicomponent exercise program (e.g., strength and balance training) to improve psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Care support and coordination to improve psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Community-based rehabilitation to improve psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Interventions to improve ADLs and IADLsHome-based occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performanceStrong evidence
Community-based occupational therapy interventions to improve ADL performance for older adults (age ≥65 yr)Strong evidence
Activity- and occupation-based interventions to increase participation in leisure activityStrong evidence
Occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performance in the patient settingArea for future research
VR task simulation to improve UE function and performanceArea for future research
Rehabilitation program targeting sexual function to improve frequency of participation in and satisfaction with sexual activityArea for future research
Community mobility program to increase participation outside of the homeArea for future research
Driving simulation training to improve driving participationArea for future research
Occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performance in outpatient settingsArea for future research
Community interventions to improve IADL performanceArea for future research
VR to improve performance of street crossing tasksArea for future research
Wheelchair skills program to improve wheelchair performanceArea for future research
Activity- and occupation-based interventions to improve social participationArea for future research
Exercise and education program to improve reintegration and quality of lifeArea for future research
Hospital-based VR program to improve executive functioning and multitasking during IADLsArea for future research
VR program to improve community mobility skillsArea for future research
Tai Chi to improve quality of sleepArea for future research
Table Footer NoteNote. ADL = activity of daily living; CIMT = constraint-induced movement therapy; IADL = instrumental activity of daily living; mCIMT = modified constraint-induced movement therapy; UE = upper extremity; VR = virtual reality.
Note. ADL = activity of daily living; CIMT = constraint-induced movement therapy; IADL = instrumental activity of daily living; mCIMT = modified constraint-induced movement therapy; UE = upper extremity; VR = virtual reality.×
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Stroke
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Stroke×
CategorySpecific InterventionStrength of Evidence
Interventions to improve occupational performance of people with cognitive impairmentsVisual scanning training to improve performanceStrong evidence
Cognitive strategy training to improve performance on trained and untrained tasksArea for future research
Strategy training for people with memory deficitsArea for future research
Computerized memory programs to improve memory performance and occupational performanceArea for future research
Time pressure management to improve speed in daily task performance for people with mental slownessArea for future research
Compensatory training interventions to improve occupational performance in people with visual dysfunctionArea for future research
Individualized home rehabilitation program to improve cognitive functionArea for future research
Prism adaptation to enhance functional measures (including wheelchair mobility) and nonfunctional measures of unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Mirror therapy to improve occupational performance in people with unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Right half-field eye patching to improve occupational performance in people with unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Spatial cueing to improve wheelchair use for those with unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Interventions to improve occupational performance of people with motor impairmentsRepetitive task practice to improve UE function, balance and mobility, and activity and participationStrong evidence
CIMT or mCIMT to improve UE function and activity and participationStrong evidence
Strengthening and exercise to improve UE function, balance and mobility, and activity and participationStrong evidence
Bilateral training to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
VR to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Mental practice to improve UE function, balance and mobility, and activity and participationArea for future research
Mirror therapy to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Action observation to improve UE functionArea for future research
Electrical stimulation to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Telerehabilitation to augment the delivery of functionally based training programsArea for future research
Robotics to improve UE function or activity and participationArea for future research
Shoulder supports to improve balance and mobilityArea for future research
Positioning devices, orthoses, and stretching to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Botulinum toxin A combined with therapy interventions to improve UE function or activity and participationArea for future research
Brain stimulation in addition to therapy to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Interventions to improve occupational performance of people with psychosocial or emotional impairmentsBehavioral therapy to reduce depression and improve other psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Multicomponent exercise program (e.g., strength and balance training) to improve psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Care support and coordination to improve psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Community-based rehabilitation to improve psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Interventions to improve ADLs and IADLsHome-based occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performanceStrong evidence
Community-based occupational therapy interventions to improve ADL performance for older adults (age ≥65 yr)Strong evidence
Activity- and occupation-based interventions to increase participation in leisure activityStrong evidence
Occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performance in the patient settingArea for future research
VR task simulation to improve UE function and performanceArea for future research
Rehabilitation program targeting sexual function to improve frequency of participation in and satisfaction with sexual activityArea for future research
Community mobility program to increase participation outside of the homeArea for future research
Driving simulation training to improve driving participationArea for future research
Occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performance in outpatient settingsArea for future research
Community interventions to improve IADL performanceArea for future research
VR to improve performance of street crossing tasksArea for future research
Wheelchair skills program to improve wheelchair performanceArea for future research
Activity- and occupation-based interventions to improve social participationArea for future research
Exercise and education program to improve reintegration and quality of lifeArea for future research
Hospital-based VR program to improve executive functioning and multitasking during IADLsArea for future research
VR program to improve community mobility skillsArea for future research
Tai Chi to improve quality of sleepArea for future research
Table Footer NoteNote. ADL = activity of daily living; CIMT = constraint-induced movement therapy; IADL = instrumental activity of daily living; mCIMT = modified constraint-induced movement therapy; UE = upper extremity; VR = virtual reality.
Note. ADL = activity of daily living; CIMT = constraint-induced movement therapy; IADL = instrumental activity of daily living; mCIMT = modified constraint-induced movement therapy; UE = upper extremity; VR = virtual reality.×
×
Acknowledgments
This work is based on the January/February 2015 issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (Gillen, 2015) and the Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Adults With Stroke (Wolf & Nilsen, 2015), developed in collaboration with the AOTA Evidence-Based Practice Project.
References
Gillen, G. (Ed.). (2015). Occupational therapy and stroke [Special issue]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69(1).
Gillen, G. (Ed.). (2015). Occupational therapy and stroke [Special issue]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69(1).×
Wolf, T. J., & Nilsen, D. M. (2015). Occupational therapy practice guidelines for adults with stroke. Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press.
Wolf, T. J., & Nilsen, D. M. (2015). Occupational therapy practice guidelines for adults with stroke. Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press.×
World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health. Geneva: Author.
World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health. Geneva: Author.×
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Stroke
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Stroke×
CategorySpecific InterventionStrength of Evidence
Interventions to improve occupational performance of people with cognitive impairmentsVisual scanning training to improve performanceStrong evidence
Cognitive strategy training to improve performance on trained and untrained tasksArea for future research
Strategy training for people with memory deficitsArea for future research
Computerized memory programs to improve memory performance and occupational performanceArea for future research
Time pressure management to improve speed in daily task performance for people with mental slownessArea for future research
Compensatory training interventions to improve occupational performance in people with visual dysfunctionArea for future research
Individualized home rehabilitation program to improve cognitive functionArea for future research
Prism adaptation to enhance functional measures (including wheelchair mobility) and nonfunctional measures of unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Mirror therapy to improve occupational performance in people with unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Right half-field eye patching to improve occupational performance in people with unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Spatial cueing to improve wheelchair use for those with unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Interventions to improve occupational performance of people with motor impairmentsRepetitive task practice to improve UE function, balance and mobility, and activity and participationStrong evidence
CIMT or mCIMT to improve UE function and activity and participationStrong evidence
Strengthening and exercise to improve UE function, balance and mobility, and activity and participationStrong evidence
Bilateral training to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
VR to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Mental practice to improve UE function, balance and mobility, and activity and participationArea for future research
Mirror therapy to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Action observation to improve UE functionArea for future research
Electrical stimulation to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Telerehabilitation to augment the delivery of functionally based training programsArea for future research
Robotics to improve UE function or activity and participationArea for future research
Shoulder supports to improve balance and mobilityArea for future research
Positioning devices, orthoses, and stretching to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Botulinum toxin A combined with therapy interventions to improve UE function or activity and participationArea for future research
Brain stimulation in addition to therapy to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Interventions to improve occupational performance of people with psychosocial or emotional impairmentsBehavioral therapy to reduce depression and improve other psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Multicomponent exercise program (e.g., strength and balance training) to improve psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Care support and coordination to improve psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Community-based rehabilitation to improve psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Interventions to improve ADLs and IADLsHome-based occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performanceStrong evidence
Community-based occupational therapy interventions to improve ADL performance for older adults (age ≥65 yr)Strong evidence
Activity- and occupation-based interventions to increase participation in leisure activityStrong evidence
Occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performance in the patient settingArea for future research
VR task simulation to improve UE function and performanceArea for future research
Rehabilitation program targeting sexual function to improve frequency of participation in and satisfaction with sexual activityArea for future research
Community mobility program to increase participation outside of the homeArea for future research
Driving simulation training to improve driving participationArea for future research
Occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performance in outpatient settingsArea for future research
Community interventions to improve IADL performanceArea for future research
VR to improve performance of street crossing tasksArea for future research
Wheelchair skills program to improve wheelchair performanceArea for future research
Activity- and occupation-based interventions to improve social participationArea for future research
Exercise and education program to improve reintegration and quality of lifeArea for future research
Hospital-based VR program to improve executive functioning and multitasking during IADLsArea for future research
VR program to improve community mobility skillsArea for future research
Tai Chi to improve quality of sleepArea for future research
Table Footer NoteNote. ADL = activity of daily living; CIMT = constraint-induced movement therapy; IADL = instrumental activity of daily living; mCIMT = modified constraint-induced movement therapy; UE = upper extremity; VR = virtual reality.
Note. ADL = activity of daily living; CIMT = constraint-induced movement therapy; IADL = instrumental activity of daily living; mCIMT = modified constraint-induced movement therapy; UE = upper extremity; VR = virtual reality.×
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Stroke
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Stroke×
CategorySpecific InterventionStrength of Evidence
Interventions to improve occupational performance of people with cognitive impairmentsVisual scanning training to improve performanceStrong evidence
Cognitive strategy training to improve performance on trained and untrained tasksArea for future research
Strategy training for people with memory deficitsArea for future research
Computerized memory programs to improve memory performance and occupational performanceArea for future research
Time pressure management to improve speed in daily task performance for people with mental slownessArea for future research
Compensatory training interventions to improve occupational performance in people with visual dysfunctionArea for future research
Individualized home rehabilitation program to improve cognitive functionArea for future research
Prism adaptation to enhance functional measures (including wheelchair mobility) and nonfunctional measures of unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Mirror therapy to improve occupational performance in people with unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Right half-field eye patching to improve occupational performance in people with unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Spatial cueing to improve wheelchair use for those with unilateral spatial neglectArea for future research
Interventions to improve occupational performance of people with motor impairmentsRepetitive task practice to improve UE function, balance and mobility, and activity and participationStrong evidence
CIMT or mCIMT to improve UE function and activity and participationStrong evidence
Strengthening and exercise to improve UE function, balance and mobility, and activity and participationStrong evidence
Bilateral training to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
VR to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Mental practice to improve UE function, balance and mobility, and activity and participationArea for future research
Mirror therapy to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Action observation to improve UE functionArea for future research
Electrical stimulation to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Telerehabilitation to augment the delivery of functionally based training programsArea for future research
Robotics to improve UE function or activity and participationArea for future research
Shoulder supports to improve balance and mobilityArea for future research
Positioning devices, orthoses, and stretching to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Botulinum toxin A combined with therapy interventions to improve UE function or activity and participationArea for future research
Brain stimulation in addition to therapy to improve UE function and activity and participationArea for future research
Interventions to improve occupational performance of people with psychosocial or emotional impairmentsBehavioral therapy to reduce depression and improve other psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Multicomponent exercise program (e.g., strength and balance training) to improve psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Care support and coordination to improve psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Community-based rehabilitation to improve psychosocial outcomesArea for future research
Interventions to improve ADLs and IADLsHome-based occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performanceStrong evidence
Community-based occupational therapy interventions to improve ADL performance for older adults (age ≥65 yr)Strong evidence
Activity- and occupation-based interventions to increase participation in leisure activityStrong evidence
Occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performance in the patient settingArea for future research
VR task simulation to improve UE function and performanceArea for future research
Rehabilitation program targeting sexual function to improve frequency of participation in and satisfaction with sexual activityArea for future research
Community mobility program to increase participation outside of the homeArea for future research
Driving simulation training to improve driving participationArea for future research
Occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performance in outpatient settingsArea for future research
Community interventions to improve IADL performanceArea for future research
VR to improve performance of street crossing tasksArea for future research
Wheelchair skills program to improve wheelchair performanceArea for future research
Activity- and occupation-based interventions to improve social participationArea for future research
Exercise and education program to improve reintegration and quality of lifeArea for future research
Hospital-based VR program to improve executive functioning and multitasking during IADLsArea for future research
VR program to improve community mobility skillsArea for future research
Tai Chi to improve quality of sleepArea for future research
Table Footer NoteNote. ADL = activity of daily living; CIMT = constraint-induced movement therapy; IADL = instrumental activity of daily living; mCIMT = modified constraint-induced movement therapy; UE = upper extremity; VR = virtual reality.
Note. ADL = activity of daily living; CIMT = constraint-induced movement therapy; IADL = instrumental activity of daily living; mCIMT = modified constraint-induced movement therapy; UE = upper extremity; VR = virtual reality.×
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