Research Article  |   October 2016
Predicting Handwriting Legibility in Taiwanese Elementary School Children
Author Affiliations
  • Tzu-I Lee, MS, is Master’s Student, School of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei
  • Tsu-Hsin Howe, PhD, is Associate Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, New York University, New York
  • Hao-Ling Chen, PhD, is Associate Professor, School of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, and Occupational Therapist, Division of Occupational Therapy, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei
  • Tien-Ni Wang, PhD, is Assistant Professor, School of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, and Occupational Therapist, Division of Occupational Therapy, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei; tnwang@ntu.edu.tw
Article Information
Pediatric Evaluation and Intervention / School-Based Practice / Children and Youth
Research Article   |   October 2016
Predicting Handwriting Legibility in Taiwanese Elementary School Children
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, October 2016, Vol. 70, 7006220020p1-7006220020p9. doi:10.5014/ajot.2016.016865
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, October 2016, Vol. 70, 7006220020p1-7006220020p9. doi:10.5014/ajot.2016.016865
Abstract

This study investigates handwriting characteristics and potential predictors of handwriting legibility among typically developing elementary school children in Taiwan. Predictors of handwriting legibility included visual–motor integration (VMI), visual perception (VP), eye–hand coordination (EHC), and biomechanical characteristics of handwriting. A total of 118 children were recruited from an elementary school in Taipei, Taiwan. A computerized program then assessed their handwriting legibility. The biomechanics of handwriting were assessed using a digitizing writing tablet. The children’s VMI, VP, and EHC were assessed using the Beery–Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration. Results indicated that predictive factors of handwriting legibility varied in different age groups. VMI predicted handwriting legibility for first-grade students, and EHC and stroke force predicted handwriting legibility for second-grade students. Kinematic factors such as stroke velocity were the only predictor for children in fifth and sixth grades.