Marleen Vanvuchelen, Herbert Roeyers, Willy De Weerdt; Objectivity and Stability of the Preschool Imitation and Praxis Scale. Am J Occup Ther 2011;65(5):569-577. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2010.ajot00000414.
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OBJECTIVE. We examined rater and test–retest reliability of the Preschool Imitation and Praxis Scale (PIPS).
METHOD. We administered the PIPS to 119 typically developing children ages 1.5–4.9 yr.
RESULTS. The PIPS demonstrated acceptable intra- and interrater reliability on item level (kw = 0.45–1) and scale level (intraclass correlation coefficient ICC = 0.996; 95% CI: 0.968–0.999 and ICC = 0.995; 95% CI: 0.990–0.997, respectively). The smallest detectable difference of the PIPS was 5.6%, indicating that the change score rated by different raters for an individual child is valid and that the PIPS can be used by different raters as an outcome measure to determine children’s improvement or maturation. Results of test–retest analysis revealed that the PIPS score is stable over time (r = .93).
CONCLUSION. The PIPS appears to meet the required standards regarding objectivity and stability. The PIPS may assist clinicians and researchers in evaluating and reevaluating preschoolers’ imitation ability, which is a primary learning strategy of young children.
Meaningful intransitive gestures (i-MG; e.g., communicative gestures such as “perform the gesture to wave good-bye”)
Meaningful goal-directed transitive gestures (t-MG; e.g., “pretend to comb your hair with an imaginary comb”)
Nonmeaningful single-hand postures (si-NMG; e.g., “raise your outstretched arm till 90° anteflexion and make a fist”)
Nonmeaningful bimanual hand postures (bi-NMG; e.g., “place one fist on top of the other”)
Nonmeaningful hand postures to the face and head (fa-NMG; e.g., “touch the top of your nose with the extended index finger”)
Nonmeaningful sequences of hand postures (sq-NMG; e.g., “hit the table with the palm of your hands, cross the arms, and hit the table again, return to the original position, and hit the table once more”).
Goal-directed substituted actions on objects (sao-P; e.g., “raise a toy bear by pulling a cord”)
Goal-directed actions on substituted objects (aso-P; e.g., “turn a cup upside-down and play drums on it with two spoons”)
Non–goal-directed action sequences on objects (sq-P; e.g., “open a box, put the lid on the table, turn the box upside-down, put a block on the bottom of the box”).
Grahic Jump Location
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