Claudia List Hilton, Diane L. Smith; Research Focused on Children and Youth. Am J Occup Ther 2012;66(3):e39-e51. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2012.004325.
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© 2019 American Occupational Therapy Association
We reviewed 22 articles on children and youth published in 2011 in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy and organized the articles by level of research and research type according to a framework adapted from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF;World Health Organization, 2007). The largest percentage of articles described intervention effectiveness studies classified as Level III or IV. The bulk focused on the Body Function/Body Structure construct of the ICF, but as a whole the studies addressed all the constructs except Biomedical Molecular/Cellular. Rigor remains a concern, although laudable efforts have been made to increase strength of the evidence. Longitudinal, efficacy, and qualitative studies, as well as studies examining adolescents and the transition to adulthood, were absent from articles in this review and are important areas for future investigation. Several studies explicitly addressed intervention fidelity, an imperative in evidence-based research needed to move the profession toward the Centennial Vision.
Basic and applied scientific studies related to skills, processes, and foundations for childhood and adolescent occupations
Factors that contribute to the success or failure of a specific frame of reference
Both qualitative and quantitative methodologies to address multiple facets of above
Efficacy studies that examine interventions (efficacy, effectiveness, outcomes development)
Theory development and development of conceptual models that promote integration of theory and practice
Empirical studies conducted in context
Translational research providing information on applications to practice, policy development, systems change, program development
The roles and participation of parents, siblings, and other family members within family centered services
Longitudinal studies of the participation of children with special needs in their daily lives as they transition through childhood and adolescence into adulthood
Studies that examine factors central to the children, youth and their families such as finding a friend, participating in community life, and procuring and maintaining jobs
Studies that examine the emotional and social cost of occupational deprivation and occupational injustice for children and youth such as depression, alcohol and substance abuse, and suicide in disenfranchised youth, and what this is costing emotionally to youth and family as well as to society. (p. 8)
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