Miri Tal Saban, Asher Ornoy, Itamar Grotto, Shula Parush; Adolescents and Adults Coordination Questionnaire: Development and Psychometric Properties. Am J Occup Ther 2012;66(4):406-413. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2012.003251.
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© 2019 American Occupational Therapy Association
OBJECTIVE. This article describes the development of a brief, ecologically valid, self-report questionnaire, the Adolescents and Adults Coordination Questionnaire (AAC–Q), used to identify developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in adolescents and adults.
METHOD. The AAC–Q was completed by 28 adolescents and adults with suspected DCD ages 16–35 yr (mean [M] age = 21.18 yr) and 28 peers without DCD (M age = 27.64 yr). Cutoff scores for suspected DCD were established using data from a sample of 2,379 participants ages 19–25 yr (M age = 20.68 yr).
RESULTS. Reliability of the AAC–Q was determined using Cronbach’s α (α = .88) and test–retest reliability (r = .94, p < .001). Independent-sample t tests to assess construct validity revealed significant differences between participants with and without DCD, t(27) = 9.37, p < .001.
CONCLUSION. The AAC–Q is a standardized, reliable, and valid tool with potential for both research and clinical use.
A. Performance in daily activities that require motor coordination is substantially below expected given the person’s chronologic age and measured intelligence.B. The disturbance in Criterion A substantially interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living.C. The disturbance is not due to a general medical condition (e.g., cerebral palsy, hemiplegia, muscular dystrophy), and it does not meet criteria for a pervasive developmental disorder.D. If mental retardation is present, the motor difficulties are in excess of those usually associated with it. (APA, 2000, p. 58)
A. Performance in daily activities that require motor coordination is substantially below expected given the person’s chronologic age and measured intelligence.
B. The disturbance in Criterion A substantially interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living.
C. The disturbance is not due to a general medical condition (e.g., cerebral palsy, hemiplegia, muscular dystrophy), and it does not meet criteria for a pervasive developmental disorder.
D. If mental retardation is present, the motor difficulties are in excess of those usually associated with it. (APA, 2000, p. 58)
For clinical practice a cut-off at the 15th centile (1 SD) is proposed (Clinical Diagnostic Criteria). For basic research a cut-off at the fifth centile (1.65 SD) is recommended (Research Diagnostic Criteria). Children with scores in the intermediate range, i.e. between the fifth and the 15th centile, may be considered as “borderline.” (p. 34)
Assessment of wording and item clarity: The same eight occupational therapists administered the questionnaire to 14 typical respondents ages 16–35. Following this process, we made changes to the wording of some items.
Assessment of the time required to complete the questionnaire: We measured time to completion for the same 14 participants. On average, they took 10–15 min to complete the questionnaire.
Assessment of potential response formats: At this point, we tested two response formats, both using a 5-point Likert scale, to increase the precision of the instrument (Fitzpatrick, Davey, Buxton, & Jones, 1998). One scale examined the frequency of the phenomenon (1 = never or 0% of the time to 5 = always or 100% of the time), and the second rated the degree or intensity of the phenomenon (1 = does not describe me at all to 5 = absolutely describes me).
Because deficits in motor coordination appear to continue into adolescence and young adulthood, there is a need to develop instruments to best serve this population’s assessment and treatment needs.
Practitioners who treat adolescents and young adults with motor deficits should base the need for service provision on psychometrically sound screening tools that take the effects of the deficits on participation into account.
Research into motor deficits with adolescents and young adults can be based on accurate group placement.
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