Marian Arbesman, Deborah Lieberman, Debra R. Berlanstein; Method for the Systematic Reviews on Occupational Therapy and Early Intervention and Early Childhood Services. Am J Occup Ther 2013;67(4):389–394. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2013.007039
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© 2021 American Occupational Therapy Association
Systematic reviews of literature relevant to early intervention and early childhood services are important to the practice of occupational therapy. We describe the five questions that served as the focus for the systematic reviews of the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions in early intervention and early childhood services. We include the background for the reviews; the process followed for each question, including search terms and search strategy; the databases searched; and the methods used to summarize and critically appraise the literature. The final number of articles included in each systematic review; a summary of the themes of the results; the strengths and limitations of the findings; and implications for practice, education, and research are presented.
Level I: Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials
Level II: Two groups, nonrandomized studies (e.g., cohort, case control)
Level III: One group, nonrandomized (e.g., before and after, pretest and posttest)
Level IV: Descriptive studies that include analysis of outcomes (e.g., single-subject design, case series)
Level V: Case reports and expert opinion that include narrative literature reviews and consensus statements.
Social–emotional development: What is the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions used by occupational therapy practitioners to promote social–emotional development of children with or at risk for disabilities, ages birth to 5 yr?
Feeding, eating, and swallowing: What is the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions used in occupational therapy to improve feeding, eating, and swallowing for children from birth to age 5?
Motor development: What is the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy to improve motor performance in children birth to age 5 yr?
Cognitive development: What is the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice to improve cognitive development in children birth to age 5?
Service delivery model: What is the evidence for the effectiveness of different service delivery models and methods used in occupational therapy services for young children and their families?
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