Monica S. Perlmutter, Anjali Bhorade, Mae Gordon, Holly H. Hollingsworth, M. Carolyn Baum; Cognitive, Visual, Auditory, and Emotional Factors That Affect Participation in Older Adults. Am J Occup Ther 2010;64(4):570-579. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2010.09089.
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© 2019 American Occupational Therapy Association
OBJECTIVE. To determine whether changes in hearing, cognition, depression, and vision affect daily life participation and whether screening tests that identify problems could be used in the home.
METHOD. Interviewers assessed presence of medical conditions, social class, distance acuity, cognition, hearing, depression, and participation using valid screening tools. Participation scores were subgrouped according to negative or positive results. Multiple regression analysis determined association of screening tests with participation.
RESULTS. Eighty-eight older adults, ages 62–90, participated. Positive screening tests were found in 43% of participants for distance acuity, 9% for cognitive problems, 8% for depression, and 15% for hearing loss. Relationships were found among age, cognition, depression, and vision and participation.
CONCLUSION. Mild levels of decreased vision, depression, and decreased cognition are associated with lower participation. These conditions can be screened by occupational therapists and managed to help older adults remain active and maintain their health.
What are the influences on participation of common conditions faced by older adults, such as depression and changes in hearing, cognition, and vision?
Can screening tests that identify problems, such as depression and changes in hearing, cognition, and vision, be used in the home?
Does decreased vision limit participation and ultimately result in depression?
Do people who self-identify cognitive and sensory changes limit their activities?
Does depression limit participation and cause further decline in participation when vision is limited?
Is it possible that people with depression and limited vision restrict participation and, therefore, decrease engagement in experiences, resulting in cognitive loss?
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