Karina Pont, Margaret Wallen, Anita Bundy, Jane Case-Smith; Reliability and Validity of the Test of In-Hand Manipulation in Children Ages 5 to 6 Years. Am J Occup Ther 2008;62(4):384–392. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.62.4.384
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The Test of In-Hand Manipulation (TIHM; Case-Smith, 2000) is a five-task test that uses a 9-hole pegboard to examine 2 key components of in-hand manipulation: rotation and translation with stabilization. The authors used Rasch modeling to examine the TIHM’s construct validity, interrater reliability, and test–retest reliability in 45 typically developing children ages 5.5 years to 6.5 years. A version of the test, revised using Rasch modeling, was found to have evidence for adequate construct validity and excellent interrater reliability. However, test–retest reliability over a 2-week retest period was not supported. The TIHM demonstrates potential as a clinically useful assessment of in-hand manipulation. The test does not examine all aspects of in-hand manipulation, however, and it may have limited sensitivity to the performance of finger-to-palm and palm-to-finger translation. Further validation of the test is needed before the TIHM can confidently be used in occupational therapy practice.
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