Susan M. Koziatek, Nancy J. Powell; A Validity Study of the Evaluation Tool of Children’s Handwriting–Cursive. Am J Occup Ther 2002;56(4):446-453. doi: 10.5014/ajot.56.4.446.
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OBJECTIVES. This study examined concurrent validity of the Evaluation Tool of Children’s Handwriting–Cursive (ETCH-C) by comparing ETCH-C total legibility percentage scores with handwriting grades from teachers. The study also identified the legibility percentage score discriminating between satisfactory and unsatisfactory handwriting.
METHOD. The participants were 101 fourth graders who completed two handwriting instruments. Three teachers sorted the Cursive Practice and Review work sheets into A, B, C, and unsatisfactory groups to establish handwriting grade. The study compared ETCH-C total legibility percentage scores with teacher grading, using personal judgment of handwriting on the Cursive Practice and Review work sheet.
RESULTS. Mean legibility percentage scores increased significantly as handwriting grade increased. The concurrent validity coefficients were .61 for ETCH-C total words and .65 for ETCH-C total letters and handwriting grade. ETCH-C legibility percentage scores discriminating satisfactory from unsatisfactory handwriting ranged from 73% to 82% on ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves.
CONCLUSION. Results support the concurrent validity of the ETCH-C with handwriting grades. A 75% word legibility percentage score discriminated satisfactory and unsatisfactory handwriting.
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