Christopher J. Daly, Gail T. Kelley, Andrea Krauss; Relationship Between Visual-Motor Integration and Handwriting Skills of Children in Kindergarten: A Modified Replication Study. Am J Occup Ther 2003;57(4):459-462. doi: 10.5014/ajot.57.4.459.
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OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of performance on the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI; Beery, 1997) to handwriting legibility in children attending kindergarten. The relationship of using lined versus unlined paper on letter legibility, based on a modified version of the Scale of Children’s Readiness in PrinTing (Modified SCRIPT; Weil & Cunningham Amundson, 1994) was also investigated.
METHOD. Fifty-four typically developing kindergarten students were administered the VMI; 30 students completed the Modified SCRIPT with unlined paper, 24 students completed the Modified SCRIPT with lined paper. Students were assessed in the first quarter of the kindergarten school year and scores were analyzed using correlational and nonparametric statistical measures.
RESULTS. Strong positive relationships were found between VMI assessment scores and student’s ability to legibly copy letterforms. Students who could copy the first nine forms on the VMI performed significantly better than students who could not correctly copy the first nine VMI forms on both versions of the Modified SCRIPT.
CONCLUSION. Visual-motor integration skills were shown to be related to the ability to copy letters legibly. These findings support the research of Weil and Cunningham Amundson. Findings from this study also support the conclusion that there is no significant difference in letter writing legibility between students who use paper with or without lines.
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