Ruth Humphry, Kaaren Jewell, Robin Cole Rosenberger; Development of In-Hand Manipulation and Relationship With Activities. Am J Occup Ther 1995;49(8):763-771. doi: 10.5014/ajot.49.8.763.
Download citation file:
© 2017 American Occupational Therapy Association
Objectives. This study examines the age-related increase of in-hand manipulation, the consistency of using a manipulation strategy, and the relationship between the frequency of in-hand manipulation and activities that typically require use of intrinsic hand control.
Method. Children (N = 184) between 2 years and 7 years of age were observed during selected activities that could elicit three forms of in-hand manipulation: rotation, finger-to-palm translation, and palm-to-finger translation. The child’s use of a manipulation strategy was recorded. Activities that required manipulation of objects including a spoon, buttons, and crayons were also observed.
Results. The study demonstrated that the frequency of two types of in-hand manipulation increases with age and illustrated the uneven nature of development of different types of in-hand manipulation. Even when the child had the ability, use of in-hand manipulation as a movement strategy was inconsistent. Small but significant relationships between in-hand manipulation skill and performance in selected activities were found when the effects of age were controlled.
Conclusion. On a practical level, the findings raise questions as to whether maturity of in-hand manipulation may be a factor limiting performance in the everyday activities of typically developing children.
This PDF is available to Subscribers Only
For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription.