Marian Arbesman, Deborah Lieberman, Christina A. Metzler; Using Evidence to Promote the Distinct Value of Occupational Therapy. Am J Occup Ther 2014;68(4):381–385. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2014.684002
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© 2021 American Occupational Therapy Association
Multicomponent or multifactorial interventions that address multiple risk factors to reduce falls,
Occupational therapy assessment of the client and home followed by home modifications to reduce falls for clients with a history of falls,
Home modification and adaptive equipment provided by occupational therapy practitioners to reduce functional decline and improve safety,
Physical activity (regardless of type) to decrease fall risk and prevent falls, and
Home modification for older adults aging with a disability to reduce perceived difficulty with activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs).
Client-centered occupational therapy promoting improved activity levels, such as the Lifestyle Redesign® program;
Exercise programs involving functional activities for older adults to improve IADL performance; and
Progressive resistance strength training to improve community mobility and meal preparation.
Client-centered occupational therapy targeting health management in frail older adults and older adults with osteoarthritis or macular degeneration to improve physical functioning and occupational performance
Individually tailored self-management health programs coordinated by health professionals
Group health education programs led by educators and other health professionals
Peer-led self-management programs that include diagnosis-specific information, medication management, and problem-solving skills.
Combining in-class sessions with individual on-road training improves driving knowledge and on-road driving performance.
Physical retraining improves skills of older drivers.
Cognitive–perceptual training reduces at-fault crashes, delays driving cessation, and improves driving performance in clients with stroke and right hemisphere lesions.
Standardized driver simulation training improves on-road driving performance after a stroke.
Driving cessation support groups for clients with dementia and their caregivers reduce depression and improve acceptance of circumstances and preparedness for transition from driving.
Client-centered occupational therapy can identify occupational performance issues and help clients implement compensatory and environmental strategies.
Client-centered activities (e.g., leisure) tailored to people with dementia improve participation in and satisfaction with activities.
Compensatory and environmental strategies that include cueing and step-by-step instructions improve participation in activities and reduce caregiver burden.
Caregiver education, including problem-solving strategies and technical skills (e.g., task simplification, communication), simple home modifications, and stress management, reduces caregiver burden and increases caregiver self-efficacy.
Strategies to manage the physical environment (e.g., multifaceted interventions including removal of physical restraints, fall alarms, exercise) promote participation in daily activities.
Sleep routines and sleep hygiene strategies to manage daytime activities and nighttime sleeping, including voiding strategies for toileting, help prevent sleep disturbances.
Individualized interventions focusing on participant wellness, lifestyle modification, and personal control improve quality of life.
Client-preferred external cues during ADLs improve motor control.
Complex and multimodal activity (e.g., tango dancing) improves functional movement on a short-term basis.
Multisession, repetitive physical exercise tasks improve diachronic motor and sensory–perceptual performance skills.
Environmental cues, stimuli, and objects improve task and occupational performance.
Auditory rhythmic external cues are more effective than visual, tactile, or other forms of cues to help regulate walking in clients with Parkinson’s disease.
ADL-specific home-based interventions improve ADL performance.
Repetitive task practice improves occupational performance.
Constraint-induced movement therapy improves upper-extremity function and occupational performance.
Cognitive rehabilitation improves global cognitive function and improves ADLs for clients with apraxia.
Strengthening and exercise improve upper-extremity function, balance, mobility, and occupational performance.
Problem-solving techniques and motivational interviewing reduce depression following stroke.
Home-based leisure programs improve participation in and satisfaction with leisure pursuits.
Problem-solving strategies increase participation in ADL and IADL tasks.
Problem-solving strategies increase leisure and social participation.
Multicomponent patient education and training improve occupational performance.
Patient education programs improve self-regulation in driving and community mobility.
Increased illumination improves social participation.
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