Shelly J. Lane, Carole K. Ivey, Teresa A. May-Benson; Test of Ideational Praxis (TIP): Preliminary Findings and Interrater and Test–Retest Reliability With Preschoolers. Am J Occup Ther 2014;68(5):555-561. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2014.012542.
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Praxis is the ability of the brain to develop an idea for action and plan, organize, and execute unfamiliar motor actions. It enables purposeful interaction with people and things in the environment. Ideation is central to praxis but has been little researched. This study investigated the reliability of the Test of Ideational Praxis (TIP) and examined ideational praxis in typical preschoolers. TIP performance for 78 preschoolers ages 3, 4, and 5 yr was videotaped and scored by two trained raters. The TIP has strong interrater reliability, supporting earlier findings. Further, we documented test–retest stability over 2 wk. As a group, preschoolers identified 10.6 affordances (ideas) for action on the TIP; no age differences were found. Training is required for accurate scoring of the TIP; following training, clinicians and researchers may find the TIP a useful tool to screen motor ideational abilities in young children.
This study provides preliminary scoring guidelines for the TIP, which can be used in examining ideational praxis in preschool-age children.
After adequate training, practitioners can use the TIP to screen young children for ideational praxis as part of an overall motor screening.
In addition, practitioners can use the TIP to track changes in ideational praxis over time.
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