Lisa T. Shooman, Sara Rosenblum; Drawing Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (DPSQ): Development, Reliability, and Validity. Am J Occup Ther 2014;68(6):e227-e233. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2014.011932.
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© 2019 American Occupational Therapy Association
OBJECTIVE. We describe the development and preliminary psychometric examination of the DPSQ for identifying drawing difficulties in preschool children.
METHOD. Teachers completed the DPSQ for 78 children ages 3–6 yr from 4 preschools. Children drew age-appropriate geometric forms of the Visual–Motor Integration (VMI) test on a digitizing tablet. We examined psychometric properties of the DPSQ and analyzed group membership.
RESULTS. Internal consistency was high (α = .82). Significant correlations were found between DPSQ and VMI scores indicating in-air time (r = .37, p = .002) and pressure on the writing tool (r = .32, p = .007). The typical and at-risk groups differed significantly in VMI and DPSQ scores, t(76) = 5.6, p = .001. The DPSQ mean score differentiated between 76% of children with and without visual–motor deficits.
CONCLUSION. The DPSQ is a useful tool for teachers and occupational therapy practitioners for indicating visual–motor deficits and potential handwriting problems.
Duration of the stroke in air and on paper
Length, height, and width of the stroke’s path
Pressure applied to the writing surface.
The DPSQ is a quick and practical tool for teachers and occupational therapists to use to identify children who may be at risk for drawing difficulties.
The development of the DPSQ gives teachers and practitioners a tool to use in gathering information about students who might otherwise not receive needed services.
Early identification of children with drawing difficulties may create opportunities for these children to receive early intervening services while they are still in preschool.
The DPSQ enables public school personnel to screen entire classrooms, thereby meeting requirements for federal RtI initiatives.
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