Sara Rosenblum, Liat Gafni-Lachter; Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire for Children (HPSQ–C): Development, Reliability, and Validity. Am J Occup Ther 2015;69(3):6903220030. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2015.014761
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© 2021 American Occupational Therapy Association
OBJECTIVE. To adapt the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ), previously designated for adults, into a children’s self-report version (the HPSQ for Children, or HPSQ–C) and to examine its reliability and validity.
METHOD. Participants included 230 children ages 7–14 yr from regular schools in Israel. The questionnaire’s content validity, internal consistency, and concurrent and construct validity were assessed.
RESULTS. The tool demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .77). We found a significant moderate correlation between final HPSQ–C scores and the HPSQ, r = .51, p < .001, establishing the HPSQ–C’s concurrent validity. Construct validity was also confirmed. Results demonstrated that the HPSQ–C significantly distinguished between children with and without handwriting deficiencies on the basis of measures of handwriting product (Hebrew Handwriting Evaluation) and handwriting process (Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool).
CONCLUSION. The HPSQ–C is suitable for identification of handwriting deficiency among school-aged children and is appropriate for varied academic and clinical uses.
The HPSQ–C is a quick and practical tool to be used by occupational therapists to identify children with self-reported handwriting difficulties.
The HPSQ–C may serve as a tool for raising children’s awareness concerning daily confrontations with handwriting difficulties as well as for creating a dialogue with the occupational therapist about those difficulties.
Early identification of children with handwriting difficulties, focusing on the difficulties’ characteristics (time, legibility, well-being), may prevent further emotional and academic consequences and lead to focused intervention.
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