Beth Pfeiffer, Beverly Moskowitz, Andrew Paoletti, Eugene Brusilovskiy, Sheryl Eckberg Zylstra, Tammy Murray; Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration (VMI): An Effective Outcome Measure for Handwriting Interventions for Kindergarten, First-Grade, and Second-Grade Students?. Am J Occup Ther 2015;69(4):6904350010. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2015.015826
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© 2019 American Occupational Therapy Association
We determined whether a widely used assessment of visual–motor skills, the Beery–Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration (VMI), is appropriate for use as an outcome measure for handwriting interventions. A two-group pretest–posttest design was used with 207 kindergarten, first-grade, and second-grade students. Two well-established handwriting measures and the VMI were administered pre- and postintervention. The intervention group participated in the Size Matters Handwriting Program for 40 sessions, and the control group received standard instruction. Paired and independent-samples t tests were used to analyze group differences. The intervention group demonstrated significant improvements on the handwriting measures, with change scores having mostly large effect sizes. We found no significant difference in change scores on the VMI, t(202) = 1.19, p = .23. Results of this study suggest that the VMI may not detect changes in handwriting related to occupational therapy intervention.
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