Patricia Faller, Joanne Hunt, Elke van Hooydonk, Zoe Mailloux, Roseann Schaaf; Application of Data-Driven Decision Making Using Ayres Sensory Integration® With a Child With Autism. Am J Occup Ther 2015;70(1):7001220020. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2016.016881
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© 2021 American Occupational Therapy Association
Health care and educational legislation and policy require that clinicians demonstrate, using measurement and report of outcomes, accountability for services rendered. Clinical algorithms have been developed and are used by various health care professionals to assist with hypothesis generation and systematic clinical reasoning; however, they do not explicitly guide measurement of outcomes as part of the reasoning process. Schaaf and colleagues developed the Data-Driven Decision Making (DDDM) process to address the greater need for outcome measurement, systematically support decision making, target intervention more precisely, and measure and document outcomes. This article describes the application of the DDDM process with a child with ASD who received occupational therapy using Ayres Sensory Integration®.
Awakening quietly: On awakening in the morning, M will play for 10–14 min with the toy set out for him the previous night rather than run around the house or disrupt siblings.
Dressing: After initial verbal instruction, M will independently don three articles of clothing with fewer than three redirections.
Play: M will participate in at least one representational play activity with three to four social exchanges relative to the activity with his siblings for 10–14 min given two prompts.
Safety: M will play safely on a playground given five to six redirections during a 20-min play session.
Participation in synagogue: M will remain seated in synagogue for 10–14 min with a fidget toy.
High levels of proprioception (e.g., wheelbarrow walk; pulling, climbing, carrying heavy items)
Pressure touch (e.g., hug, massage, using a weighted blanket, playing in spandex, moving under large pillows)
Oral–motor activities (e.g., resistive chewing, blow toys, drinking thick liquid, using a straw to blow items across table)
Antigravity control positions during play
Opportunities to rearrange, remove, and replace equipment or materials, based on the child’s response
Changes in intensity, duration, frequency, or rhythm of sensory experiences, based on the child’s response.
The DDDM process is a tool to assist clinicians with systematic decision making and outcome measurement.
Clinicians may need to reframe their thinking related to outcome measurement and incorporate it into their everyday practice.
Use of outcome measurement as a standard of practice will allow clinicians to create evidence through everyday practice.
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