Open Access
Research Article  |   January 2018
Research Opportunities in the Area of Adults With Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Neurocognitive Disorders
Article Information
Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia / Evidence-Based Practice / Neurologic Conditions / Evidence-Based Practice
Research Article   |   January 2018
Research Opportunities in the Area of Adults With Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Neurocognitive Disorders
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, January 2018, Vol. 72, 7202395010p1-7202395010p3. doi:10.5014/ajot.2018.722001
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, January 2018, Vol. 72, 7202395010p1-7202395010p3. doi:10.5014/ajot.2018.722001
Abstract

The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) Evidence-Based Practice Project has developed a table summarizing the research opportunities for adults with Alzheimer’s disease and related major neurocognitive disorders. The table provides an overview of the state of current available evidence on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice and is based on the systematic reviews from the AOTA Practice Guidelines Series. Researchers, clinicians, and students can use this information in developing innovative research to answer important questions within the occupational therapy field.

Planning a research project requires consideration of many factors. Level of interest and knowledge in a specific area, access to appropriate participant populations, support of mentors and other researchers, and funding availability all help determine the focus of a future project. An additional component to be considered is whether adequate, up-to-date research has already addressed a topic; if sufficient evidence is available in a given core area, this area might not be the best choice for another research project.
The best research topic may be one in which either little research has been done or the research to date is insufficient, inconclusive, or mixed. In addition, when research conducted to date provides a low level of evidence and is of limited quality, additional high-quality research in the area is needed.
The “Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Neurocognitive Disorders” provides an overview of the state of current available evidence on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice. The table is based on the systematic reviews from the AOTA Practice Guidelines Series. The table lists specific interventions and indicates either that the evidence to support the intervention is strong or that moderate, mixed, or few studies support the intervention and therefore the area is one for future research. Researchers, students, and clinicians can use this information in developing innovative research to answer important questions within the field of occupational therapy. Please refer to Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Adults With Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Major Neurocognitive Disorders (Piersol & Jensen, 2017) and the September/October 2017 issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (Smallfield, 2017) for more information on the topic area and the systematic review process. To access the tables online and search for research opportunities in other practice areas, visit https://www.aota.org/researchopportunitiestables.
Researchers are also encouraged to enter their projects into AOTA’s Researcher Database at https://myaota.aota.org/research/. This database provides AOTA with information such as relevant clinical settings and populations, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health level (World Health Organization, 2001), funders (if any), and key words to help guide research advocacy and policy initiatives.
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Neurocognitive Disorders
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Neurocognitive Disorders×
InterventionStrength of Evidence
Interventions Designed to Establish, Modify, and Maintain ADLs, IADLs, Leisure, and Social Participation
ADL training or activity modification to improve or maintain ADL and leisure performanceStrong evidence
Dosage (frequency, duration, and intensity) of exercise-based interventions to improve or maintain ADLs, including functional mobility and sleepArea for future research
Errorless learning and prompting strategies to improve DL performanceStrong evidence
Cognitive stimulation for enhanced social participationStrong evidence
Montessori methods for enhanced performance in self-feedingArea for future research
Spaced retrieval techniques for improved self-feedingArea for future research
Individualized social activities to enhance sleepArea for future research
Multicomponent interventions for improving or maintaining QOLArea for future research
Cognitive training (i.e., practice of discrete cognitive tasks) and cognitive rehabilitation (i.e., strategy-based training for cognitive tasks) for improved occupational performanceArea for future research
Multicomponent intervention to improve or maintain ADL performanceArea for future research
Occupation-based interventions for reducing problematic behaviorsArea for future research
Sleep education to improve sleep performanceArea for future research
Comprehensive rehabilitation to improve ADLsArea for future research
Dosage for exercise-based interventions to improve or maintain ADLsArea for future research
A variety of other interventions, including use of music, gardening, environmental modification, and outdoor activities, among others, for improving and maintaining occupational performanceArea for future research
Environment-Based Interventions to Improve Behavior and Perception and to Reduce Falls
Person-centered, individually tailored environment-based interventions for improving behavior during the duration of the interventionStrong evidence
Rooms designed for the intended purpose (i.e., privacy and personalization of resident bedrooms and familiar ambience for living rooms and dining rooms) to improve behaviorsStrong evidence
Monitoring devices for fall prevention used in the homeStrong evidence
Environmental interventions to compensate for perceptual changes rather than to change perceptual abilitiesStrong evidence
Ambient music for improving behavior at times other than mealtimesStrong evidence
Multisensory interventions (e.g., Snoezelen®) for short-term behavior improvementsStrong evidence
Concealed or painted doorknobs, murals on doors, or blinds or cloth barriers over doors to reduce exit attemptsArea for future research
Environmental design principles of murals and other art on walls, L-shaped corridors, and good visual access to important amenities (e.g., the toilet) for reducing disorientation and promoting engagementArea for future research
Environmental noise-level regulation to a moderate level for improving behaviorArea for future reference
Environmental relocation (e.g., moving residents from a traditional nursing unit to an SCU) with no negative long-term effects on behaviorArea for future research
Ambient music to improve behavior during mealtimesArea for future research
Bright light therapy to decrease behavioral disturbancesArea for future research
Proprioceptive sensory input (i.e., air mat therapy) to improve behaviorArea for future research
Functional task object availability in the environment to improve behaviorArea for future research
SCUs and other homelike environments assumed to be superior to traditional nursing homes for improving overall behaviorArea for future research
Wander gardens for improving behavior and reducing fallsArea for future research
Black tape grids or stripes on floor in front of doors to reduce exit attemptsArea for future research
Sensory devices worn by people with mild AD to facilitate way findingArea for future research
Tinted lenses, prisms, and other optical devices for improving perceptionArea for future research
Environmental modification without other concurrent fall-reduction strategies for preventing fallsArea for future research
Educational and Supportive Strategies for Caregivers to Maintain Participation in That Role
Multicomponent psychoeducational interventions for improved caregiver QOL, well-being, confidence, perception of burden, mental health, and self-efficacyStrong evidence
Communication skills training, either alone or in combination with memory aid training, for caregiver QOL and well-beingStrong evidence
Cognitive reframing therapy for reducing caregiver anxiety, depression, and stressStrong evidence
Mindfulness and stress reduction interventions, live or virtually, for improved caregiver mental healthStrong evidence
Professionally led support groups for enhanced caregiver well-being and QOLStrong evidence
Multicomponent psychoeducational interventions for delayed nursing home placementArea for future research
Case management by occupational therapy practitioners focused on both the client and the caregiver for promoting caregiver respite accessArea for future research
Family- or peer-led support groups for increasing QOLArea for future research
Physical activity and exercise program, in person and by telephone, for reduction in caregiver stressArea for future research
CBT caregiver interventions for practitioner–caregiver interaction for positive caregiver outcomesArea for future research
Web-based support groups for caregiver well-being and QOLArea for future research
Professionally led support group for enhanced caregiver competenceArea for future research
Evidence-based program (Skills2Care®; see http://www.jefferson.edu/university/health-professions/jefferson-elder-care/services.html) successfully delivered by home-based occupational therapists and reimbursed by Medicare Part BArea for future research
CBT delivered in person or by telephone to reduce caregiver depression and burdenArea for future research
Leisure routines shared between client and caregiver to improve caregiver well-beingArea for future research
Table Footer NoteNote. AD = Alzheimer’s disease; ADLs = activities of daily living; CBT = cognitive–behavioral therapy; DL = daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living; QOL = quality of life; SCU = special care unit.
Note. AD = Alzheimer’s disease; ADLs = activities of daily living; CBT = cognitive–behavioral therapy; DL = daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living; QOL = quality of life; SCU = special care unit.×
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Neurocognitive Disorders
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Neurocognitive Disorders×
InterventionStrength of Evidence
Interventions Designed to Establish, Modify, and Maintain ADLs, IADLs, Leisure, and Social Participation
ADL training or activity modification to improve or maintain ADL and leisure performanceStrong evidence
Dosage (frequency, duration, and intensity) of exercise-based interventions to improve or maintain ADLs, including functional mobility and sleepArea for future research
Errorless learning and prompting strategies to improve DL performanceStrong evidence
Cognitive stimulation for enhanced social participationStrong evidence
Montessori methods for enhanced performance in self-feedingArea for future research
Spaced retrieval techniques for improved self-feedingArea for future research
Individualized social activities to enhance sleepArea for future research
Multicomponent interventions for improving or maintaining QOLArea for future research
Cognitive training (i.e., practice of discrete cognitive tasks) and cognitive rehabilitation (i.e., strategy-based training for cognitive tasks) for improved occupational performanceArea for future research
Multicomponent intervention to improve or maintain ADL performanceArea for future research
Occupation-based interventions for reducing problematic behaviorsArea for future research
Sleep education to improve sleep performanceArea for future research
Comprehensive rehabilitation to improve ADLsArea for future research
Dosage for exercise-based interventions to improve or maintain ADLsArea for future research
A variety of other interventions, including use of music, gardening, environmental modification, and outdoor activities, among others, for improving and maintaining occupational performanceArea for future research
Environment-Based Interventions to Improve Behavior and Perception and to Reduce Falls
Person-centered, individually tailored environment-based interventions for improving behavior during the duration of the interventionStrong evidence
Rooms designed for the intended purpose (i.e., privacy and personalization of resident bedrooms and familiar ambience for living rooms and dining rooms) to improve behaviorsStrong evidence
Monitoring devices for fall prevention used in the homeStrong evidence
Environmental interventions to compensate for perceptual changes rather than to change perceptual abilitiesStrong evidence
Ambient music for improving behavior at times other than mealtimesStrong evidence
Multisensory interventions (e.g., Snoezelen®) for short-term behavior improvementsStrong evidence
Concealed or painted doorknobs, murals on doors, or blinds or cloth barriers over doors to reduce exit attemptsArea for future research
Environmental design principles of murals and other art on walls, L-shaped corridors, and good visual access to important amenities (e.g., the toilet) for reducing disorientation and promoting engagementArea for future research
Environmental noise-level regulation to a moderate level for improving behaviorArea for future reference
Environmental relocation (e.g., moving residents from a traditional nursing unit to an SCU) with no negative long-term effects on behaviorArea for future research
Ambient music to improve behavior during mealtimesArea for future research
Bright light therapy to decrease behavioral disturbancesArea for future research
Proprioceptive sensory input (i.e., air mat therapy) to improve behaviorArea for future research
Functional task object availability in the environment to improve behaviorArea for future research
SCUs and other homelike environments assumed to be superior to traditional nursing homes for improving overall behaviorArea for future research
Wander gardens for improving behavior and reducing fallsArea for future research
Black tape grids or stripes on floor in front of doors to reduce exit attemptsArea for future research
Sensory devices worn by people with mild AD to facilitate way findingArea for future research
Tinted lenses, prisms, and other optical devices for improving perceptionArea for future research
Environmental modification without other concurrent fall-reduction strategies for preventing fallsArea for future research
Educational and Supportive Strategies for Caregivers to Maintain Participation in That Role
Multicomponent psychoeducational interventions for improved caregiver QOL, well-being, confidence, perception of burden, mental health, and self-efficacyStrong evidence
Communication skills training, either alone or in combination with memory aid training, for caregiver QOL and well-beingStrong evidence
Cognitive reframing therapy for reducing caregiver anxiety, depression, and stressStrong evidence
Mindfulness and stress reduction interventions, live or virtually, for improved caregiver mental healthStrong evidence
Professionally led support groups for enhanced caregiver well-being and QOLStrong evidence
Multicomponent psychoeducational interventions for delayed nursing home placementArea for future research
Case management by occupational therapy practitioners focused on both the client and the caregiver for promoting caregiver respite accessArea for future research
Family- or peer-led support groups for increasing QOLArea for future research
Physical activity and exercise program, in person and by telephone, for reduction in caregiver stressArea for future research
CBT caregiver interventions for practitioner–caregiver interaction for positive caregiver outcomesArea for future research
Web-based support groups for caregiver well-being and QOLArea for future research
Professionally led support group for enhanced caregiver competenceArea for future research
Evidence-based program (Skills2Care®; see http://www.jefferson.edu/university/health-professions/jefferson-elder-care/services.html) successfully delivered by home-based occupational therapists and reimbursed by Medicare Part BArea for future research
CBT delivered in person or by telephone to reduce caregiver depression and burdenArea for future research
Leisure routines shared between client and caregiver to improve caregiver well-beingArea for future research
Table Footer NoteNote. AD = Alzheimer’s disease; ADLs = activities of daily living; CBT = cognitive–behavioral therapy; DL = daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living; QOL = quality of life; SCU = special care unit.
Note. AD = Alzheimer’s disease; ADLs = activities of daily living; CBT = cognitive–behavioral therapy; DL = daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living; QOL = quality of life; SCU = special care unit.×
×
Acknowledgments
This work is based on the September/October 2017 issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (Smallfield, 2017) and the Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Adults With Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Neurocognitive Disorders (Piersol & Jensen, 2017), all from the AOTA Evidence-Based Practice Project.
References
Piersol, C. V., & Jensen, L. (2017). Occupational therapy practice guidelines for adults with Alzheimer’s disease and related neurocognitive disorders. Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press.
Piersol, C. V., & Jensen, L. (2017). Occupational therapy practice guidelines for adults with Alzheimer’s disease and related neurocognitive disorders. Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press.×
Smallfield, S. (2017). Special issue on occupational therapy and Alzheimer's disease and related major neurocognitive disorders [Special issue]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 71(5).
Smallfield, S. (2017). Special issue on occupational therapy and Alzheimer's disease and related major neurocognitive disorders [Special issue]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 71(5).×
World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health. Geneva: Author.
World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health. Geneva: Author.×
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Neurocognitive Disorders
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Neurocognitive Disorders×
InterventionStrength of Evidence
Interventions Designed to Establish, Modify, and Maintain ADLs, IADLs, Leisure, and Social Participation
ADL training or activity modification to improve or maintain ADL and leisure performanceStrong evidence
Dosage (frequency, duration, and intensity) of exercise-based interventions to improve or maintain ADLs, including functional mobility and sleepArea for future research
Errorless learning and prompting strategies to improve DL performanceStrong evidence
Cognitive stimulation for enhanced social participationStrong evidence
Montessori methods for enhanced performance in self-feedingArea for future research
Spaced retrieval techniques for improved self-feedingArea for future research
Individualized social activities to enhance sleepArea for future research
Multicomponent interventions for improving or maintaining QOLArea for future research
Cognitive training (i.e., practice of discrete cognitive tasks) and cognitive rehabilitation (i.e., strategy-based training for cognitive tasks) for improved occupational performanceArea for future research
Multicomponent intervention to improve or maintain ADL performanceArea for future research
Occupation-based interventions for reducing problematic behaviorsArea for future research
Sleep education to improve sleep performanceArea for future research
Comprehensive rehabilitation to improve ADLsArea for future research
Dosage for exercise-based interventions to improve or maintain ADLsArea for future research
A variety of other interventions, including use of music, gardening, environmental modification, and outdoor activities, among others, for improving and maintaining occupational performanceArea for future research
Environment-Based Interventions to Improve Behavior and Perception and to Reduce Falls
Person-centered, individually tailored environment-based interventions for improving behavior during the duration of the interventionStrong evidence
Rooms designed for the intended purpose (i.e., privacy and personalization of resident bedrooms and familiar ambience for living rooms and dining rooms) to improve behaviorsStrong evidence
Monitoring devices for fall prevention used in the homeStrong evidence
Environmental interventions to compensate for perceptual changes rather than to change perceptual abilitiesStrong evidence
Ambient music for improving behavior at times other than mealtimesStrong evidence
Multisensory interventions (e.g., Snoezelen®) for short-term behavior improvementsStrong evidence
Concealed or painted doorknobs, murals on doors, or blinds or cloth barriers over doors to reduce exit attemptsArea for future research
Environmental design principles of murals and other art on walls, L-shaped corridors, and good visual access to important amenities (e.g., the toilet) for reducing disorientation and promoting engagementArea for future research
Environmental noise-level regulation to a moderate level for improving behaviorArea for future reference
Environmental relocation (e.g., moving residents from a traditional nursing unit to an SCU) with no negative long-term effects on behaviorArea for future research
Ambient music to improve behavior during mealtimesArea for future research
Bright light therapy to decrease behavioral disturbancesArea for future research
Proprioceptive sensory input (i.e., air mat therapy) to improve behaviorArea for future research
Functional task object availability in the environment to improve behaviorArea for future research
SCUs and other homelike environments assumed to be superior to traditional nursing homes for improving overall behaviorArea for future research
Wander gardens for improving behavior and reducing fallsArea for future research
Black tape grids or stripes on floor in front of doors to reduce exit attemptsArea for future research
Sensory devices worn by people with mild AD to facilitate way findingArea for future research
Tinted lenses, prisms, and other optical devices for improving perceptionArea for future research
Environmental modification without other concurrent fall-reduction strategies for preventing fallsArea for future research
Educational and Supportive Strategies for Caregivers to Maintain Participation in That Role
Multicomponent psychoeducational interventions for improved caregiver QOL, well-being, confidence, perception of burden, mental health, and self-efficacyStrong evidence
Communication skills training, either alone or in combination with memory aid training, for caregiver QOL and well-beingStrong evidence
Cognitive reframing therapy for reducing caregiver anxiety, depression, and stressStrong evidence
Mindfulness and stress reduction interventions, live or virtually, for improved caregiver mental healthStrong evidence
Professionally led support groups for enhanced caregiver well-being and QOLStrong evidence
Multicomponent psychoeducational interventions for delayed nursing home placementArea for future research
Case management by occupational therapy practitioners focused on both the client and the caregiver for promoting caregiver respite accessArea for future research
Family- or peer-led support groups for increasing QOLArea for future research
Physical activity and exercise program, in person and by telephone, for reduction in caregiver stressArea for future research
CBT caregiver interventions for practitioner–caregiver interaction for positive caregiver outcomesArea for future research
Web-based support groups for caregiver well-being and QOLArea for future research
Professionally led support group for enhanced caregiver competenceArea for future research
Evidence-based program (Skills2Care®; see http://www.jefferson.edu/university/health-professions/jefferson-elder-care/services.html) successfully delivered by home-based occupational therapists and reimbursed by Medicare Part BArea for future research
CBT delivered in person or by telephone to reduce caregiver depression and burdenArea for future research
Leisure routines shared between client and caregiver to improve caregiver well-beingArea for future research
Table Footer NoteNote. AD = Alzheimer’s disease; ADLs = activities of daily living; CBT = cognitive–behavioral therapy; DL = daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living; QOL = quality of life; SCU = special care unit.
Note. AD = Alzheimer’s disease; ADLs = activities of daily living; CBT = cognitive–behavioral therapy; DL = daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living; QOL = quality of life; SCU = special care unit.×
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Neurocognitive Disorders
Research Opportunities Table in the Area of Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Neurocognitive Disorders×
InterventionStrength of Evidence
Interventions Designed to Establish, Modify, and Maintain ADLs, IADLs, Leisure, and Social Participation
ADL training or activity modification to improve or maintain ADL and leisure performanceStrong evidence
Dosage (frequency, duration, and intensity) of exercise-based interventions to improve or maintain ADLs, including functional mobility and sleepArea for future research
Errorless learning and prompting strategies to improve DL performanceStrong evidence
Cognitive stimulation for enhanced social participationStrong evidence
Montessori methods for enhanced performance in self-feedingArea for future research
Spaced retrieval techniques for improved self-feedingArea for future research
Individualized social activities to enhance sleepArea for future research
Multicomponent interventions for improving or maintaining QOLArea for future research
Cognitive training (i.e., practice of discrete cognitive tasks) and cognitive rehabilitation (i.e., strategy-based training for cognitive tasks) for improved occupational performanceArea for future research
Multicomponent intervention to improve or maintain ADL performanceArea for future research
Occupation-based interventions for reducing problematic behaviorsArea for future research
Sleep education to improve sleep performanceArea for future research
Comprehensive rehabilitation to improve ADLsArea for future research
Dosage for exercise-based interventions to improve or maintain ADLsArea for future research
A variety of other interventions, including use of music, gardening, environmental modification, and outdoor activities, among others, for improving and maintaining occupational performanceArea for future research
Environment-Based Interventions to Improve Behavior and Perception and to Reduce Falls
Person-centered, individually tailored environment-based interventions for improving behavior during the duration of the interventionStrong evidence
Rooms designed for the intended purpose (i.e., privacy and personalization of resident bedrooms and familiar ambience for living rooms and dining rooms) to improve behaviorsStrong evidence
Monitoring devices for fall prevention used in the homeStrong evidence
Environmental interventions to compensate for perceptual changes rather than to change perceptual abilitiesStrong evidence
Ambient music for improving behavior at times other than mealtimesStrong evidence
Multisensory interventions (e.g., Snoezelen®) for short-term behavior improvementsStrong evidence
Concealed or painted doorknobs, murals on doors, or blinds or cloth barriers over doors to reduce exit attemptsArea for future research
Environmental design principles of murals and other art on walls, L-shaped corridors, and good visual access to important amenities (e.g., the toilet) for reducing disorientation and promoting engagementArea for future research
Environmental noise-level regulation to a moderate level for improving behaviorArea for future reference
Environmental relocation (e.g., moving residents from a traditional nursing unit to an SCU) with no negative long-term effects on behaviorArea for future research
Ambient music to improve behavior during mealtimesArea for future research
Bright light therapy to decrease behavioral disturbancesArea for future research
Proprioceptive sensory input (i.e., air mat therapy) to improve behaviorArea for future research
Functional task object availability in the environment to improve behaviorArea for future research
SCUs and other homelike environments assumed to be superior to traditional nursing homes for improving overall behaviorArea for future research
Wander gardens for improving behavior and reducing fallsArea for future research
Black tape grids or stripes on floor in front of doors to reduce exit attemptsArea for future research
Sensory devices worn by people with mild AD to facilitate way findingArea for future research
Tinted lenses, prisms, and other optical devices for improving perceptionArea for future research
Environmental modification without other concurrent fall-reduction strategies for preventing fallsArea for future research
Educational and Supportive Strategies for Caregivers to Maintain Participation in That Role
Multicomponent psychoeducational interventions for improved caregiver QOL, well-being, confidence, perception of burden, mental health, and self-efficacyStrong evidence
Communication skills training, either alone or in combination with memory aid training, for caregiver QOL and well-beingStrong evidence
Cognitive reframing therapy for reducing caregiver anxiety, depression, and stressStrong evidence
Mindfulness and stress reduction interventions, live or virtually, for improved caregiver mental healthStrong evidence
Professionally led support groups for enhanced caregiver well-being and QOLStrong evidence
Multicomponent psychoeducational interventions for delayed nursing home placementArea for future research
Case management by occupational therapy practitioners focused on both the client and the caregiver for promoting caregiver respite accessArea for future research
Family- or peer-led support groups for increasing QOLArea for future research
Physical activity and exercise program, in person and by telephone, for reduction in caregiver stressArea for future research
CBT caregiver interventions for practitioner–caregiver interaction for positive caregiver outcomesArea for future research
Web-based support groups for caregiver well-being and QOLArea for future research
Professionally led support group for enhanced caregiver competenceArea for future research
Evidence-based program (Skills2Care®; see http://www.jefferson.edu/university/health-professions/jefferson-elder-care/services.html) successfully delivered by home-based occupational therapists and reimbursed by Medicare Part BArea for future research
CBT delivered in person or by telephone to reduce caregiver depression and burdenArea for future research
Leisure routines shared between client and caregiver to improve caregiver well-beingArea for future research
Table Footer NoteNote. AD = Alzheimer’s disease; ADLs = activities of daily living; CBT = cognitive–behavioral therapy; DL = daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living; QOL = quality of life; SCU = special care unit.
Note. AD = Alzheimer’s disease; ADLs = activities of daily living; CBT = cognitive–behavioral therapy; DL = daily living; IADLs = instrumental activities of daily living; QOL = quality of life; SCU = special care unit.×
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