Sarah A. Schoen, Lucy Jane Miller, Shelley Mulligan; Validity of the Occupational Performance Scale of the Sensory Processing Three Dimensions Measure. Am J Occup Ther 2021;75(2):7502205090. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.044248
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© 2021 American Occupational Therapy Association
Importance: The Sensory Processing Three Dimensions (SP3D) Occupational Performance Scale (OPS) is a new parent-report measure developed for use as part of a comprehensive occupational therapy evaluation for children with sensory processing and integration challenges.
Objective: To examine the internal consistency and discriminant validity of the SP3D OPS, examine relations between sensory processing subtypes and areas of occupational performance (OP), and determine the extent to which specific sensory processing challenges predict problems with OP.
Design: Nonexperimental, descriptive design using correlations, group comparisons, and stepwise regression.
Setting: Three outpatient clinic sites in the United States.
Participants: Parents of 66 children (33 typically developing and 33 with clinical problems) ranging in age from 4 to 12 yr.
Outcomes and Measures: The SP3D OPS and SP3D Inventory were completed by parents to address psychometrics of the SP3D OPS and determine the association between sensory processing and integration challenges with OP.
Results: Internal consistency reliability and discriminant validity of the SP3D OPS were supported. Scores on the Dyspraxia and Sensory Overresponsivity subscales best predicted deficits in OP. Significant relations were found between sensory processing and integration and competency in multiple OP areas.
Conclusions and Relevance: The SP3D OPS shows promise as a measure of OP. The OP deficits among children with sensory processing and integration challenges are in part due to subtype presentation. Further studies of the SP3D OPS’s reliability and validity are needed.
What This Article Adds: This new occupational performance measure shows associations between sensory processing and OP areas. It can provide information to support therapists in identifying family concerns relevant to goal setting and intervention.
To evaluate the internal consistency of each SP3D OPS subscale and of total OP
To evaluate the discriminant validity of the SP3D OPS, with the hypothesis that OP ratings of children with sensory processing and integration challenges will be lower than those of typically developing children
To explore correlations between scores reflecting sensory processing and integration behaviors and skills with competency in performance across different occupational areas, with the hypothesis that there will be small to moderate correlations between sensory processing and integration subtypes and OP
To determine the extent to which sensory processing and integration symptoms and subtypes as measured by the SP3D Inventory predict problems with certain areas of OP on the basis of SP3D OPS scores.
The areas of occupation described by the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process (4th ed.; AOTA, 2020) as being within occupational therapy’s domain of practice
Research literature documenting the types of OP problems often experienced by people with sensory processing and integration deficits
Review of data over a 10-yr period from a private clinic serving children and adults with sensory processing problems
Need for ease and efficiency in administration.
A comprehensive sensory-based assessment should reflect the areas of OP affected.
Engaging parents in identifying concerns and priorities can be facilitated through use of an OP measure.
Assessment that incorporates family priorities is essential to treatment planning.
Clinicians should consider how sensory processing and integration challenges may differentially affect areas of OP.
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