Research Article
Issue Date: March/April 2021
Published Online: January 28, 2021
Updated: February 12, 2021
Caregiver Perspectives on School Participation Among Students With Craniofacial Microsomia
Author Affiliations
  • Vera C. Kaelin, MScOT, is PhD Student and Graduate Research Assistant, Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago.
  • Erin R. Wallace, PhD, is Research Consultant, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle. At the time this research was conducted, Wallace was Clinical Research Scientist, Center for Child Health, Behavior, and Development, Seattle Children’s Research Institute, Seattle, WA.
  • Martha M. Werler, DSc, is Professor, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA.
  • Brent R. Collett, PhD, is Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle.
  • Janine Rosenberg, PhD, is Pediatric Psychologist, Department of Psychiatry and Surgery, University of Illinois Hospital and Health Science System, Chicago, IL.
  • Mary A. Khetani, ScD, is Associate Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Applied Health Sciences and Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, and Research Scientist, CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; mkhetani@uic.edu
Article Information
Pediatric Evaluation and Intervention / Rehabilitation, Participation, and Disability / School-Based Practice / Research Articles
Research Article   |   January 28, 2021
Caregiver Perspectives on School Participation Among Students With Craniofacial Microsomia
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, January 2021, Vol. 75, 7502205100. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.041277
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, January 2021, Vol. 75, 7502205100. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.041277
Abstract

Importance: Knowledge of unmet school participation needs for students with craniofacial microsomia (CFM) can inform decisions regarding intervention support.

Objective: To compare students with and without CFM on school participation (i.e., frequency, involvement, desire for participation to change) and caregivers’ perceptions of environmental support for participation in occupations.

Design: Cross-sectional design using secondary analyses of a subset of data.

Setting: Multisite cohort study.

Participants: Caregivers of students with CFM (n = 120) and of students without CFM (n = 315), stratified by history of education- and health-related service use.

Outcomes and Measures: School participation and environmental support, obtained with the Participation and Environment Measure–Children and Youth.

Results: Significant group differences were found in frequency of school participation (effect size [ES] = −0.38, 95% confidence interval [−0.64, −0.12], p = .005), level of involvement (ES = −0.14, p = .029), and desired change (p = .001), with students with CFM exhibiting greater participation restriction than students without CFM and no history of service use. No statistically significant group differences were found in environmental support for participation in the school setting. Item-level findings showed statistically significant higher desire for participation to change in three of five school occupations (odds ratio = 1.77–2.39, p = .003–.045) for students with CFM compared with students without CFM and no history of service use.

Conclusions and Relevance: The results suggest that students with CFM experience restriction in participation at school.

What This Article Adds: Students with CFM may benefit from targeted school-based interventions to optimize their inclusion.